Less than 5% of eligible adult cancer survivors participate in cancer clinical trials. Survivors identifying as Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) are less likely to participate in clinical trials compared to those identifying as non-Hispanic White. Common barriers to BIPOC participation are lack of knowledge, lack of access, and mistrust. These barriers are all factors in the disparities observed in BIPOC cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Clinical trials need adequate BIPOC representation to garner generalizable findings that can reduce or eliminate cancer disparities associated with the social construct of race.
This systematic review examined the use of video education interventions to impact BIPOC survivor participation in clinical trials.
Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, PsycInfo, and CINAHL databases were queried for articles that described or tested video interventions aimed at increasing adult, BIPOC survivor clinical trial participation. Two authors independently screened articles for inclusion, appraised quality, and abstracted relevant data. All authors synthesized the data into themes through discussion and consensus.
The search yielded 2,512 articles. Seven selected articles described six distinct interventions. Although the six interventions reduced barriers to participation in clinical trials, their findings varied on Black and Hispanic survivors’ readiness to enroll and participate in trials. Four themes emerged: (a) cultural sensitivity is needed in video development and delivery; (b) video content should be aimed to educate and change attitudes about clinical trials; (c) video interventions are feasible and acceptable; and (d) video interventions affect outcomes on intention or actual enrollment.
Video interventions are well-received by BIPOC survivors and may improve representation in clinical trials. Yet, video interventions are underutilized. More studies are needed to establish best practices for video interventions aimed at diversifying clinical trial participation as widening cancer disparities and rapidly changing cancer care continue to emerge.
Nursing retention is a concern for healthcare systems, hospital administrators, and nurses who have spent considerable time and money to achieve educational goals. Nearly, 33% of nurses will drop out in the 2 years practice. Those who stay in practice face an increased risk of suicide when compared the general population.
To examine the relationship between nurse sociodemographic data and unique study variables with potential morally injurious outcomes (i.e., dropping out variables: changing jobs, intention to leave the profession, or suicidal thinking).
A descriptive, correlational study design was used to characterize the relationship between the sociodemographic data of 216 registered nurses (RNs) and patient safety and the suicidal behavioral questionnaire.
RNs involved in a patient safety incident (PSI) considered changing jobs when the degree of harm was death (p < .001) or was unknown (p < .05) when compared with no harm. RNs were more likely to consider leaving the profession when the degree of harm to the patient was permanent (p < .01) or the patient died (p < .05) when compared with having no harm. RNs future suicidal thinking (i.e., their self-reported likelihood of future suicidal behavior) was statistically significant when degree of harm to the patient was death (p < .05) as a result of a PSI (95% CI [1.11, 8.71]) when compared with no harm. The RNs who had suicidal thoughts over the past year compared with those without and the RNs with future suicidal thinking compared with those without, may respond differently in the aftermath of a PSI.
This study served as a pioneering effort to the current understanding between nurse characteristics and patient harm and “dropping out” outcomes in RNs involved in PSIs. RNs involved with PSIs that led to more harm were more likely to change jobs, consider leaving the profession, or contemplate future suicide. These findings have important implications for nurses, administrative managers in healthcare organizations, and researchers.
Advance care planning (ACP) refers to a process of discussions between professionals, patients, and their families, which allows the patient to define and communicate their care and treatment preferences. Understanding the barriers to advance care planning is the first step on the way to overcoming them and to improving person-centred care and attention.
To identify the barriers perceived by professionals, patients, and family members when implementing ACP in a clinical context and to analyse the methodological quality of the evidence.
An umbrella review guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute and a systematic review in accordance with PRISMA 2015 were utilized. Data were obtained from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, The Joanna Briggs Institute, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE in November 2018.
Fourteen systematic reviews were included. The main barriers reported by professionals were lack of knowledge and skills to carry out ACP, a certain fear of starting conversations about ACP, and a lack of time for discussions. Patients and family members considered that the main barriers were fear of discussing their relative’s end of life, lack of ability to carry out ACP, and not knowing who was responsible for initiating conversations about ACP.
This review has examined the barriers presented by health professionals, patients, and family members, so that future lines of research can develop preventive or decisive measures that encourage the implementation of ACP in health care.
Health information and communication fall within patient preferences in evidence-based practice. Now more than ever, patients and families in the community have free access to "evidence" and healthcare information on the internet. However, is that information trustworthy, and how can we encourage people to use evidence to promote their optimal health and wellness? The recent rise of global spread of mis- and disinformation through social media outlets has affected public health. There is growing recognition that social media platforms provide magnified podiums leading to unfortunate outcomes. While much work has been done during the COVID-19 pandemic to address health misinformation, there is still much more work to do. We must respond to the widespread misinformation as a collective healthcare community to prevent poor healthcare decisions. Urging the public to be alert to information spread, assess the quality of health information (and whether it is evidence-based), and use shared decision-making tools is a path we can travel together.
Patients commonly display aggressive and violent behaviors toward nursing staff, contributing to severe consequences. Healthcare institutions must develop and implement systems addressing this global safety problem.
To improve clinical practice safety for inpatient acute care settings by providing healthcare teams throughout a large academic medical center with a Behavioral Emergency Response Team (BERT) program, that is, a system for reporting and de-escalating aggressive patient encounters.
This descriptive quality improvement process took place within two inpatient acute care departments using simulation-based training, patient safety rounds, and a BERT activation system. Participant groups included nursing personnel who completed a baseline survey (n = 302), telecommunication dispatchers (n = 20), BERT responders (n = 78), and bedside nursing staff (n = 43) recipients of BERT program resources. Methods included a baseline questionnaire, pre- and post-intervention surveys, formal reports of aggressive patient encounters, documentation from patient safety rounds, and records of activated BERT responses. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
This project mitigated patient aggression episodes by successfully designing and implementing an evidence-based BERT program. Findings suggested bedside nursing program participants felt more confident and capable of managing aggressive patient behaviors. A strong partnership between security officers and nursing staff limited the risk of harm to clinical staff by identifying and intervening with 41 potentially aggressive patients. Finally, formal reports of patient aggression episodes did not increase during this project, which may have indicated early prevention and detection of aggression while reflecting the broader problem of aggression under-reporting in nursing.
Healthcare organizations need to have robust systems to manage aggressive patient encounters. Comprehensive strategies for managing patient aggression include simulation-based training, the use of BERT responders, and a strong partnership between nursing and security officer teams.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increase a woman’s risk for developing cardiovascular disease, with risk factors manifested as early as one year postpartum. Researchers are examining how physical activity may help to mitigate cardiovascular risk factors in this population.
Review the existing scientific literature on the impact of physical activity in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy related to physical activity and cardiovascular risk factor outcomes.
This integrative review examined research studies addressing physical activity in women with a history of preeclampsia or other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Using four databases, the search strategy included published studies through December 31, 2019. Identified studies were assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools.
The initial search identified 1,166 publications. Seven studies including two observational, four quasi-experimental, and one experimental study were included in the review. Although the studies had limitations, none of these limitations were deemed significant enough to eliminate a study from the review. Studies were conducted in four countries, and participants were predominantly White. Physical activity interventions primarily consisted of delivery of educational content, and data were primarily obtained by self-report. Of the five studies utilizing intervention strategies, three reported positive findings including increased physical activity, enhanced physiologic adaptations, and decreased physical inactivity. One study reported mixed findings of improved physical fitness in both groups, while another reported no change in intent to change exercise behavior associated with the intervention.
Physical activity promotion among women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy has been studied by a small group of researchers. Current literature on the topic is characterized by limited sample diversity, lack of exercise-based interventions, and over reliance on self-report to measure physical activity. It is imperative that further research be conducted to facilitate improved cardiovascular outcomes.
Postoperative delirium is the most common complication of surgery particularly in older patients.
The current study aimed to summarize the commonly used delirium assessment tools in assessing postoperative delirium (POD) and to estimate the incidence rates of POD.
A systematic review that included empirical cohort studies reporting the use of delirium assessment tools in assessing POD between 2000 and 2019. Five core databases were searched for eligible studies. The methodological quality assessment of the included studies was undertaken using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklist to examine the risk of bias. Pooled incidence estimates were calculated using a random effects model.
Nineteen studies with a total of 3,533 postsurgery older patients were included in this review. The confusion assessment method (CAM) and CAM-ICU were the most commonly used tools to assess POD among older postoperative patients. The pooled incidence rate of POD was 24% (95% CI [0.20, 0.29]). The pooled incidence estimates for mixed (noncardiac) surgery, orthopedic surgery, and tumor surgery were 23% (95% CI [0.15, 0.31]), 27% (95% CI [0.20, 0.33]), and 19% (95% CI [0.15, 0.22]), respectively. More than 50% of included studies used CAM to assess POD in different types of postoperative patients. Using CAM to assess delirium is less time-consuming and it was suggested as the most efficient tool for POD detection.
We identified that CAM could be implemented in different settings for assessing POD. The incidence and risk factors for POD introduced can be used for future research to target these potential indicators. The incidence rate, risk factors, and predictors of POD explored can provide robust evidence for clinical practitioners in their daily practice.
Many organizations struggle to systematically integrate EBP into practice. EBP mentors address organizational barriers and promote the translation of evidence into clinical practice at the bedside.
To evaluate research findings related to EBP mentor development programs, to identify effective practices, and to assess the outcomes associated with EBP mentor development programs.
A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to retrieve studies from CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus, using keywords and subject headers related to EBP mentorship and quality and safety outcomes. Studies were appraised and reviewed to compare mentor program composition and examine clinician, organizational, and patient outcomes.
Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria: one randomized control trial (RCT), one literature review, eleven descriptive studies, and two case reviews. Most programs included didactic content, an EBP project with coaching, and resources to support learning. The studies found that these programs led to improvements in clinicians’ EBP beliefs, practices, and abilities, the organization’s readiness for EBP, and patient safety.
There is solid justification for healthcare organizations to invest in an EBP mentor development program.
Nurse leaders play a unique role in seeking ways to promote a strong nurse workforce and positive work attitudes and behaviors among nurses to assist in their success. The leadership practice of nurse managers could be an important factor in promoting nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.
To determine the relationship between transformational leadership practices of first-line nurse managers and nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.
A descriptive correlational research design was conducted at a Saudi university hospital. The study consisted of 60 nurse managers and 211 nurses. Measures included Leadership Practices Inventory, organizational resilience, and job involvement questionnaires. Results were analyzed using inferential statistics and Structural Equation Modeling.
In addition to the positive significant correlation found among the studied variables, First-Line Nurse Managers’ Leadership practices accounted for 43% and 40% of the variance of nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.
Nurse leaders perform a crucial role in embracing and executing effective strategies through their transformational leadership and managerial caring to support nurses’ resilience and job involvement. Shared governance and a respectful working atmosphere that conveys gratitude to nurses are popular strategies that enhance the efficacy of nursing leadership and promote positive work attitudes among nurses.
At least 40% of maternal deaths are attributable to failure to rescue (FTR) events. Nurses are positioned to prevent FTR events, but there is minimal understanding of systems-level factors affecting obstetric nurses when patients require rescue.
To identify the nurse-specific contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes underlying obstetric FTR and the interventions designed to prevent these events.
A realist review was conducted to meet the aims. This review included literature from 1999 to 2020 to understand the systems-level factors affecting obstetric nurses during FTR events using a human factors framework designed by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety.
Existing interventions addressed the prevention of maternal death through education of clinicians, improved protocols for care and maternal transfer, and an emphasis on communication and teamwork.
Few researchers addressed task overload or connected employee and organizational outcomes with patient outcomes, and the physical environment was minimally considered. Future research is needed to understand how systems-level factors affect nurses during FTR events.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) endeavors to integrate the best available evidence with clinical expertise and patient preference to enhance clinical outcomes. For nurses to effectively demonstrate EBP, the concepts of EBP should be systematically incorporated into the nursing curriculum, with nurse educators playing a pivotal role in execution. However, the effect of EBP training programs on nurse educators remains largely unexplored.
To evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP training program on the knowledge, attitude, practice, and competency of nurse educators.
A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted at a nursing education institution. Fifty-one nurse educators were cluster randomized into intervention and control groups. A 30-hour EBP training intervention was provided for nurse educators in the intervention group. The outcome variables were knowledge, attitude, practice, and competency regarding EBP. These outcomes were evaluated using the EBP knowledge and practice questionnaire, EBP attitude scale, and Fresno test. Data were collected at baseline, the end of 5 months, and the end of 10 months.
Fifty-one eligible participants were enrolled in the study. The intervention and control group had three clusters each with 27 and 24 participants, respectively. Participants in both groups were comparable for variables such as age, years of experience, and educational background (p > .05). Between groups, outcome variables were compared using mixed linear multi-level modeling. Nurse educators who received the EBP training program demonstrated significant differences in knowledge (p < .05), attitude (p < .05), practice (p < .05), and competency scores (p < .05), than that of the control group, indicating the intervention effectiveness.
EBP training programs are effective in improving the knowledge, attitude, practice, and competency of nurse educators.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, providing care for critically ill patients has been challenging due to the limited number of skilled nurses, rapid transmission of the virus, and increased patient acuity in relation to the virus. These factors have led to the implementation of team nursing as a model of nursing care out of necessity for resource allocation. Nurses can use prior evidence to inform the model of nursing care and reimagine patient care responsibilities during a crisis.
To review the evidence for team nursing as a model of patient care and delegation and determine how it affects patient, nurse, and organizational outcomes.
We conducted an integrative review of team nursing and delegation using Whittemore and Knafl’s (2005) methodology.
We identified 22 team nursing articles, 21 delegation articles, and two papers about U.S. nursing laws and scopes of practice for delegation. Overall, team nursing had varied effects on patient, nursing, and organizational outcomes compared with other nursing care models. Education regarding delegation is critical for team nursing, and evidence indicates that it improves nurses’ delegation knowledge, decision-making, and competency.
Team nursing had both positive and negative outcomes for patients, nurses, and the organization. Delegation education improved team nursing care.
The Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration (ARCC ©) Model is a system-wide framework for implementing and sustaining evidence-based practice (EBP) in hospitals and healthcare systems. The model involves assessing organizational culture and readiness for EBP in addition to the development of a critical mass of EBP mentors who work with point-of-care clinicians to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based care. Determining how the various components of the ARCC © Model relate to one another is important for understanding how EBP culture and mentorship impact EBP implementation, nurses’ job satisfaction, and intent to stay.
The current study aimed to test a model that could explain the relationships and direct pathways among eight key variables in the ARCC© Model: (1) EBP culture, (2) mentorship, (3) knowledge, (4) beliefs, (5) competency, (6) implementation, (7) nurses’ job satisfaction, and (8) intent to stay.
Structural equation modeling was used to test relationships among the variables in the ARCC© Model with data obtained from an earlier cross-sectional descriptive study with 2,344 nurses from 19 hospitals and healthcare systems across the United States.
The final structural equation model found that EBP culture and mentorship were key variables that positively impacted EBP knowledge, beliefs, competency, implementation, job satisfaction, and intent to stay among nurses.
As described in the ARCC© Model, establishing a strong sustainable EBP culture along with a critical mass of EBP mentors is crucial for the development of EBP competency and consistent implementation of evidence-based care by nurses. A strong EBP culture along with EBP mentorship also can result in higher job satisfaction and intent to stay. Implementation of the ARCC © Model is a key strategy in assisting systems to reach health care’s Quadruple Aim.
Pressure ulcer (PU) development begins with an inflammatory response, arising due to pressure and shear forces causing changes to the cytoskeletal structure of cells. Thus, pain, synonymous with inflammation, may be an indicator of PU development.
To explore the role of pain as an indicator of PU development and to determine how this pain was measured.
We searched PUBMED, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases. A total of 879 records were returned, with eight satisfying the inclusion criteria. Narrative data synthesis was undertaken. The quality of studies was assessed using the evidence-based librarianship (EBL) checklist.
The studies were conducted between 2000 and 2019, and 75% (n = 6) employed a cross-sectional design. The mean sample size was 760 participants (SD = 703). Of the included studies, 87.5% (n = 7) identified that pain was associated with PU development. The most frequent pain assessment tool was the numeric rating scale (37.5%; n = 3). Using the EBL checklist, 62.5% (n = 5) of the studies scored ≥75%, reflecting validity.
Pain is associated with PU development; however, further research is required to validate these findings and assess the characteristics associated with pain as a symptom preceding PU development.
Caregivers in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) often determine care practices in silos, although access to learning communities can improve quality. Project ECHO, a telehealth–delivered mentoring intervention, provides specialists’ expertise but not in the NICU until now. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) prevention and timely recognition is one area where specialist support and engaging with a learning community could improve outcomes. NEC-Zero is one care bundle that aims to improve care quality by providing tools to implement NEC prevention in family-engaged ways.
To examine the feasibility and acceptability of NeoECHO to disseminate NEC-Zero education and describe the intentions of internal facilitators (IFs) and clinicians to initiate quality improvement changes.
This was a convergent mixed-methods study. Our team delivered the first neonatal adaptation of Project ECHO called “NeoECHO” to leverage facilitation as an implementation strategy to disseminate NEC-Zero evidence and support practice change.
Six IFs and seven NICUs participated. All units and IFs that began the series finished it. Of the 261 session attendees, 206 (79%) study evaluations were completed. Of those who completed evaluations, 89 (100%) completed at least one session and 29 (33%) completed three or more. Satisfaction was high. Participants appreciated the engaged and accessible format to learn from experts using real case examples and didactic sessions. Individuals and IFs reported intentions to adopt evidence based on NeoECHO.
NeoECHO was an acceptable and feasible way to engage under-resourced NICUs and share NEC-Zero evidence and tools. More research is needed to examine the impact of NeoECHO on care processes and patient outcomes.
Adolescents have autonomous views and participatory rights. There is increasing support for involving adolescents with cancer in the healthcare decision-making process.
The purpose of this study was to synthesize current knowledge to identify major components and outcomes of interventions to enhance shared decision-making (SDM) by adolescents with cancer during and after treatment.
Six electronic databases (PubMed, CINHAL, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EBSCO, and Web of Science) were searched from their inceptions to February 2020. Eligibility criteria were intervention studies, studies of interventions to support adolescents with cancer involved in SDM, and studies of patients diagnosed with cancer between 10 and 18 years of age. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted by using a standardized data extraction form. Quality appraisal was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.
Of 331 citations, five studies with a total of 648 participants aged between 13 and 21 years met inclusion criteria. Interventions included structured sessions held one to three times per week. SDM engagement strategies incorporated weekly assignments, live action videos, brochures, Five Wishes© advance directives, and follow-up counseling. Treatment preference congruence in adolescent and parent dyads was higher in intervention groups. Meta-analysis was performed on two studies and demonstrated statistically significant improvements in decision quality at 6 months (z = 3.37, p = .001; 95% CI = .174–.657) and 12 months (z = 3.17, p = .002; 95% CI = .150–.633) after SDM interventions in adolescent cancer survivors. No adverse events among patients were found, although anxiety scores increased in families in an intervention group.
This review identified essential components of SDM interventions. Our findings may guide the future design of interventions to support high-quality decision-making by adolescents with cancer. Coaching can educate adolescent cancer survivors on quality decision-making methods and can improve the quality of consequent decisions. More research is needed to determine outcomes of SDM interventions.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to clinical decision making that leads to a higher quality and safety of health care. Three valid and reliable scales that measure EBP attributes, including the EBP Beliefs Scale, the EBP Implementation Scale, and the Organizational Culture and Readiness Scale for System-Wide Integration of EBP, are widely used but require approximately 5 min each to complete. Shorter valid and reliable versions of these scales could offer the benefit of less time for completion, thereby decreasing participant burden.
The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the three shortened EBP scales, adapted from the longer versions.
This study used a descriptive survey design with 498 nurses who completed the three original EBP scales along with a shortened version of each scale. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with principal components extracted to examine the factor structure of each EBP measure for the three shortened EBP scales. Item intercorrelations and the Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) were used to confirm the validity of using factor analysis. Reliability of each scale using Cronbach’s α was examined. Convergent validity of the three shortened EBP scales was assessed by correlating each shortened scale with its longer scale.
Factor analysis supported the construct validity of each of the three shortened scales, as all item intercorrelations were greater than 0.40, and KMO values were 0.62 to 0.74. The shortened scales Cronbach alphas were 0.81 for the EBP Beliefs Scale, 0.89 for the EBP Implementation Scale, and 0.87 for the EBP Culture and Readiness Scale. The three shortened EBP scales had acceptable convergent validity (r = 0.42–.072) for the correlations between the shortened and longer scales.
The three shortened EBP scales, which are valid and reliable, can be used as an alternative to the longer three scales to decrease participant burden when conducting program evaluations, research, or organizational assessments.
The COVID-19 pandemic has put a strain on health systems. Predictors of adverse outcomes need to be investigated to properly manage COVID-19 patients. The Braden Scale (BS), commonly used for the assessment of pressure ulcer risk, has recently been proposed to identify frailty.
To investigate the predictive utility of the BS for prediction of in-hospital mortality in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to non-ICU wards.
We conducted a retrospective single-center cohort study evaluating all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection consecutively admitted over a 2-month period (from March 6 to May 7, 2020) to the COVID-19 general wards of our institution. Demographic, clinical, and nursing assessment data, including admission BS, were extracted from electronic medical records. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the association between the BS score and in-hospital death.
Braden Scale was assessed in 146 patients (mean age 74.7 years; 52% males). On admission, 46 had a BS ≤ 15, and 100 patients had a BS > 15. Mortality among patients with BS ≤ 15 was significantly higher than in patients with BS > 15 (45.7% vs. 16%; p < .001). On multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for potentials confounders (age, Barthel scale, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension), the admission BS remained inversely associated with the risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.76; 95% CI [0.60, 0.96]; p = .020).
Admission BS could be used as a simple bedside predictive tool able to early identify non-ICU COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis who might benefit from specific and timely interventions.