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Hoy — Mayo 15th 2021Nursing Research

Methods for Our Madness

Por: Pickler · Rita H.
No abstract available

Pivoting Nursing Research and Scholarship During the COVID-19 Pandemic

imageBackground The global COVID-19 pandemic has brought numerous challenges for conducting the human subjects research needed to advance science and improve health. Objectives The purpose of this article is to discuss how a college of nursing at a large public university in the southeast United States has responded to the challenges of conducting research during the novel COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Seven faculty researchers at the University of South Carolina College of Nursing share their experiences in overcoming the unique challenges of conducting research because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Strategies to overcome the challenges posed by COVID-19 are presented within the context of the research process, career implications, communication, and maintaining morale. Results Fears of COVID-19 and social distancing measures have hindered participant recruitment, enrollment, and involvement in ongoing studies. Increasing virtual technology use and enhancing safety precautions have assisted researchers to overcome barriers. Scholarly writing has increased for some faculty members whose studies have been stalled by the pandemic, yet others have seen a decline because of additional personal responsibilities. The careers of faculty members across all ranks have been uniquely affected by the pandemic. With most faculty working remotely, enhanced communication strategies at the university and college have supported the research enterprise. Morale has been adversely affected, but a variety of personal and collegial efforts have helped faculty cope and preserve a sense of normalcy during this devastating pandemic. Discussion Faculty and their ability to conduct the research needed to inform clinical and public health practice have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the challenges of conducting research during this unprecedented crisis, faculty and institutions are taking novel steps to ensure the continuity of scientific progress for improving the health and well-being of patients and populations.

Applying Community-Engaged Intervention Mapping to Preparing Nurse Scientists

imageBackground Preventing and managing chronic illness necessitates multilevel, theory-based interventions targeting behaviors, environmental factors, and personal determinants that increase risk for illness onset, greater burden, and poorer outcomes. Objectives The purpose of this article is to provide the basis for multilevel interventions, describe community-engaged intervention mapping as an approach to designing theory-based interventions, and discuss potential benefits of applying community-engaged intervention mapping in preparing nurse scientists to build programs of interdisciplinary research in preventing and managing chronic illness. Methods Community-engaged intervention mapping integrates two methodological approaches: intervention mapping and community-engaged research. Results The six-step intervention mapping approach provides a logical structure for preparing nurse scientists in designing, adapting, and implementing multilevel, theory-based interventions. Community-engaged research approaches offer principles and direction for engaging patients, clinicians, community members, and other stakeholders throughout the research process. Integrating these methods retains the theoretical integrity of interventions; improves the relevance and timely completion of the research and its products; and enhances intended beneficiaries and the community’s understanding, trust, and use of the results. Discussion Potential benefits of preparation in community-engaged intervention mapping to nurse scientists and nursing science include explicit consideration of multilevel factors influencing health. Additional benefits include guidance for linking relevant constructs from behavior- and environment-oriented theories with evidence-based methods for affecting desired changes in care and quality of life outcomes. Moreover, enhancement of the theoretical fidelity of the intervention, explication of the mechanisms influencing change in the primary outcome, and improved relevance and feasibility of interventions for intended beneficiaries and potential adopters are other benefits.

Using Photo-Elicitation Interviews With Families of Children and Adolescents With Chronic Illness

imageBackground Despite the increasing number of studies using photo-elicitation for data collection in qualitative research, there is a need to further explore its use among families of children and adolescents living with chronic illness. Objective The aim of this study was to discuss methodological and pragmatic considerations about the use of photo-elicitation interviews (PEIs) for data collection with families of children and adolescents living with chronic illness. Methods We discussed methodological aspects of using PEIs as reported in publications. A search of the literature was carried out to identify articles presenting information on methodological aspects of the use of PEIs in qualitative data collection, regardless of age group. In pursuit of complementing the evidence with pragmatic considerations of using PEIs, we illustrate with an example of a recent qualitative study of our own that aimed to understand the narratives about hope of families of children and adolescents living with chronic illness. Results We synthesized common aspects that need to be considered when using PEIs with different populations: ethical issues, cameras, guidance, and interviews. We also presented our experience of using the PEI technique to collect data from families. Because of our experience, we denominate our method as the “family photo-elicitation interview” (FPEI). Our method goes beyond the PEI technique because it integrates aspects of family nursing theories when conducting interviews with families. FPEIs strengthen family interaction and allow family members to share their perspectives. Discussion We present a new perspective of PEIs—the FPEI—in the pediatric context. Previous studies have not addressed considerations about using PEIs for families. We hope our results assist novice researchers in planning and implementing FPEIs in qualitative research. We recommend that researchers explore the use of FPEIs in other contexts, such as geriatrics or palliative care.

Longitudinal Moderated Mediation Analysis in Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Modeling in Intervention Studies

imageBackground Intervention studies are used widely in nursing research to explore the efficacy of intervention programs for changing targeted health outcomes. However, the analyses of such studies have focused predominantly on their main intervention effects; most studies ignore the mechanisms underlying how the intervention programs work partly because of lack of application details of the longitudinal mediation analysis techniques. Objectives The aim of this study was to illustrate an application of parallel process latent growth curve modeling (PP-LGCM) to examine longitudinal moderated mediation effects. Methods Longitudinal data from an online bone health intervention study were used to demonstrate the step-by-step application of PP-LGCM with Mplus statistical software. Results With modification indices, we were able to achieve adequate model fit for PP-LGCM in our data. The mediation effects of self-efficacy on the intervention effects on exercise were nonsignificant for the entire sample. However, the conditional indirect effect showed the mediation effects were moderated by age group. Discussion PP-LGCM provides an efficient way to analyze and explain the underlying mechanisms for the intervention effects in a trial, especially when the intervention program is guided by a theory.

Recruiting Nurses Via Social Media for Survey Studies

imageBackground Nurses are a difficult population to recruit for research. Barriers to recruitment of nurses include survey fatigue, hospital structures and institutional review boards as gatekeepers to accessing participants, and limited generalizability of findings. Social media present innovative opportunities to recruit participants for survey research. However, there is limited information about best practices for recruiting nurses through social media. Objectives The aim of this report was to examine the advantages and disadvantages of and determine the best practices for recruiting nurses for survey studies via social media. Methods We examined recruitment strategies of three survey studies involving nurse participants. Each study used social exchange theory and leverage-saliency theory to guide recruitment. The studies included were (a) the Travel Nurse Onboarding Study, which recruited participants from a single closed group on Facebook; (b) the Presenteeism and Nursing Study where participants were recruited using association listservs, healthcare organizations, and paid ads and postings on social media; and (c) the Pain and Nursing Study in which participants were recruited through social media, association listservs, and in person at conferences. Results Social media offer accessible, low-cost, high-yield approaches to recruitment of nurses for survey studies. Discussion Useful strategies for crafting effective recruitment via social media are presented, including how, where, when, and how often to post. The generalizability of social media research is also discussed. Suggestions are provided for researchers using social media as well as guidelines for institutional review boards to address gray areas of social media research. Data integrity protection techniques are proposed to ensure social media survey data are not corrupted by malicious bots. This report outlines best practices for the recruitment of nurses for survey studies using social media.

Measures of Lactation Outcomes in Women Delivering Preterm Infants

imageBackground Mother’s own milk (MOM) is well known to decrease prematurity-related morbidities, yet mothers delivering preterm infants often produce insufficient quantities of milk to provide these benefits. Although a critical need exists for research to support lactation success in this vulnerable population, development and investigation of interventions to increase available MOM for infant consumption requires consistent, valid, and reliable measures of lactation outcomes. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare and contrast methods of measuring lactation outcomes in mothers of preterm infants and evaluate their advantages and disadvantages. Methods Measures of lactation outcomes were reviewed and synthesized. Insights on best practices and future research directions are provided. Results Volume of MOM produced, lactation duration, and time to onset of secretory activation are important measures of lactation success. The most valid and reliable measure of milk production is likely weighing each vial of expressed milk combined with test weighing when infants breastfeed. Measures of lactation duration should include actual days mothers lactated rather than limiting to infant consumption of MOM as a proxy for duration and include not only whether mothers are lactating at infant discharge but whether they are also lactating at other health-relevant time points during hospitalization. Although time to onset of secretory activation is an important lactation outcome, information regarding valid and reliable indicators of onset in women delivering preterm infants is limited, and investigation of such indicators is a research priority. Variables that may affect lactation outcomes, including time to initiation of expression following delivery, duration of expression sessions, expression method, time spent in skin-to-skin care, maternal demographics and comorbidities, as well as maternal intent to lactate, must be considered when researchers investigate lactation outcomes in mothers of very low birth weight infants. Discussion Consistent and valid measures of lactation outcomes are required to produce reliable results from which evidence-based practice recommendations can be developed in order to improve lactation success in this vulnerable population.

Just-in-Time Qualitative Research: Methodological Guidelines Based on the COVID-19 Pandemic Experience

imageBackground Methodological guidelines are required to ensure both the rigor and feasibility of just-in-time, qualitative research addressing the human experience and response to the COVID-19 pandemic and major public health crises. Objectives This article presents methodological guidelines for just-in-time qualitative research based on our current, pandemic-relevant research. Methods The processes followed while conducting two longitudinal, online qualitative studies addressing the lived experience and response to the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed. Methodological challenges faced were then identified, and specific design and implementation guidelines were developed. The ways in which these guidelines can be applied to conduct just-in-time research during the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health crises were further delineated using examples from our pandemic-relevant research. Results Six guidelines were identified: (a) capitalize on fast track review and reporting processes; (b) prioritize accessibility during sample specification and selection; (c) optimize recruitment and retention strategies; (d) maximize current and future data use through strategic research design; (e) tailor data collection to participants’ characteristics, preferences, and priorities; and (f) incorporate timeline mapping of personal and contemporaneous phenomena. Discussion Public health measures taken to slow disease spread during the current COVID-19 pandemic and future public health crises may slow the pace of research and make its implementation all the more challenging. However, just-in-time qualitative research advances our understanding of the human experience and response to the COVID-19 and major public health crises. It also complements existing behavioral theory and research. The guidelines presented may assist researchers to initiate necessary qualitative research more rapidly, with fewer logistic challenges, and with methodological rigor. They may also help expand research on groups experiencing collateral effects of the pandemic and major public health crisis. Lastly, the guidelines may support the development of more robust data for alternate analysis at a later date.

Using Cognitive Interviewing to Design Interventions for Implementation in Oncology Settings

imageBackground Implementation of effective interventions into clinical practice is slow, in large part, because researchers do not sufficiently attend to the realities of nurses who implement interventions. Objectives The aim of the study was to provide an exemplar of how cognitive interviewing—an important and underused method for developing nursing research—can be used to design survey items and assess multilevel implementation factors. Methods We utilized the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to create a survey to assess factors that influence how oncology nurses deliver physical activity interventions. Two rounds of cognitive interviews were conducted with five purposively selected oncology nurses to assess survey items’ clarity and effectiveness at eliciting desired information. We used a cognitive interviewing coding scheme to code data and revise unclear items. Participants completed the revised survey online and underwent a second interview to provide additional feedback. Results Seven important changes were made to the survey: how to assess nurses’ perceptions of other nurses’ beliefs and practices; language to capture data relating to nursing leadership and administration; increased detail to assess factors related to nurses’ workplaces; language related to capturing factors related to policy; language to capture data related to equity, disparities, and cultural tailoring; terms replacement with language used by nurses; and strategy to capture data about nurses’ knowledge of national physical activity recommendations for cancer survivors. Discussion Cognitive interviewing can be applied to develop survey items that capture real-world experiences and perspectives of practicing nurses. This is an essential step in developing nursing interventions that are ready to be implemented and increasing the uptake of evidence-based nursing care. Cognitive interviewing can be used across nursing settings, populations, and interventions to develop understandings of attitudes, attributes, characteristics, and perceptions for a variety of nursing interventions.

Inclusion of Effect Size Measures and Clinical Relevance in Research Papers

imageBackground There are multiple issues that arise when researchers focus on and only report “statistical significance” of study findings. An important element that is often not included in reports is a discussion of clinical relevance. Objectives The authors address issues related to significance, the use of effect sizes, confidence or credible intervals, and the inclusion of clinical relevance in reports of research findings. Methods Measures of magnitude, precision, and relevance such as effect sizes, confidence intervals (CIs), and clinically relevant effects are described in detail. In addition, recommendations for reporting and evaluating effect sizes and CIs are included. Example scenarios are presented to illustrate the interplay of statistical significance and clinical relevance. Results There are several issues that may arise when significance is the focus of clinical research reporting. One issue is the lack of attention to nonsignificant findings in published works although findings show clinical relevance. Another issue is that significance is interpreted as clinical relevance. As well, clinically relevant results from small-sample studies are often not considered for publication, and thus, findings might not be available for meta-analysis. Discussion Findings in research reports should address effect sizes and clinical relevance and significance. Failure to publish clinically relevant effects and CIs may preclude the inclusion of clinically relevant studies in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, thereby limiting the advancement of evidence-based practice. Several accessible resources for researchers to generate, report, and evaluate measures of magnitude, precision, and relevance are included in this article.

Identifying Symptom Information in Clinical Notes Using Natural Language Processing

imageBackground Symptoms are a core concept of nursing interest. Large-scale secondary data reuse of notes in electronic health records (EHRs) has the potential to increase the quantity and quality of symptom research. However, the symptom language used in clinical notes is complex. A need exists for methods designed specifically to identify and study symptom information from EHR notes. Objectives We aim to describe a method that combines standardized vocabularies, clinical expertise, and natural language processing to generate comprehensive symptom vocabularies and identify symptom information in EHR notes. We piloted this method with five diverse symptom concepts: constipation, depressed mood, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and palpitations. Methods First, we obtained synonym lists for each pilot symptom concept from the Unified Medical Language System. Then, we used two large bodies of text (clinical notes from Columbia University Irving Medical Center and PubMed abstracts containing Medical Subject Headings or key words related to the pilot symptoms) to further expand our initial vocabulary of synonyms for each pilot symptom concept. We used NimbleMiner, an open-source natural language processing tool, to accomplish these tasks and evaluated NimbleMiner symptom identification performance by comparison to a manually annotated set of nurse- and physician-authored common EHR note types. Results Compared to the baseline Unified Medical Language System synonym lists, we identified up to 11 times more additional synonym words or expressions, including abbreviations, misspellings, and unique multiword combinations, for each symptom concept. Natural language processing system symptom identification performance was excellent. Discussion Using our comprehensive symptom vocabularies and NimbleMiner to label symptoms in clinical notes produced excellent performance metrics. The ability to extract symptom information from EHR notes in an accurate and scalable manner has the potential to greatly facilitate symptom science research.
AnteayerNursing Research

Applying Computational Ethnography to Examine Nurses’ Workflow Within Electronic Health Records

imageBackground Objective The aim of this study was to describe computational ethnography as a contemporary and supplemental methodology in EHR workflow analysis and the relevance of this method to nursing research. Methods We explore the use of audit logs as a computational ethnographic data source and the utility of data mining techniques, including sequential pattern mining (SPM) and Markov chain analysis (MCA), to analyze nurses’ workflow within the EHRs. SPM extracts frequent patterns in a given transactional database (e.g., audit logs from the record). MCA is a stochastic process that models a sequence of states and allows for calculating the probability of moving from one state to the next. These methods can help uncover nurses’ global navigational patterns (i.e., how nurses navigate within the record) and enable robust workflow analyses. Results We demonstrate hypothetical examples from SPM and MCA, such as (a) the most frequent sequential pattern of nurses’ workflow when navigating the EHR using SPM and (b) transition probability from one record screen to the next using MCA. These examples demonstrate new methods to address the inflexibility of current approaches used to examine nursing EHR workflow. Discussion Within a clinical context, the use of computational ethnographic data and data mining techniques can inform the optimization of the EHR. Results from these analyses can be used to supplement the data needed in redesigning the EHR, such as organizing and combining features within a screen or predicting future navigation to improve the record that nurses use. Many existing electronic health record (EHR) workflow studies report conflicting results in time spent in the record, documentation demand, and usability and often do not explore the time-based navigation patterns of nurses.

Risky Business: A Mediated Model of Antecedents and Consequences of Presenteeism in Nursing

imageBackground Nurses are a high-risk group for presenteeism: When one is present at work but not fully engaged. Presenteeism can occur because of multiple work, personal, and event factors and is linked to negative nurse, patient, and organizational outcomes. A model that accounts for the multiple antecedents that lead to presenteeism, as well as its consequences, is needed. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate our proposed presenteeism in nursing model among registered nurses in the United States by examining the fit of the data with the model. Methods Four hundred forty-seven registered nurses who provide direct patient care completed a cross-sectional survey on presenteeism, its antecedents and consequences, and demographics. Structural equation modeling was used to test relationships in the proposed model and overall model fit. Results The presenteeism in nursing model holistically accounted for significant presenteeism antecedents and consequences. There were significant relationships between work environment, perceived stress and work–life balance, and presenteeism. There were also significant relationships between presenteeism and missed care, and burnout. Discussion These relationships align with prior research and identify antecedents and consequences of presenteeism. This model can be used by practitioners and researchers to develop interventions addressing presenteeism to improve health system, nurse, and patient outcomes.

Integrated Review of Psychosocial and Behavioral Health Assessments and Interventions in Pulmonary Hypertension

imageBackground The medical management of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) has advanced, with few evidence-based recommendations about psychosocial and behavioral health interventions. There is also a lack of comprehensive understanding of PH psychosocial and behavioral health needs. Some psychosocial and behavioral health interventions have been tested; however, there is a gap in the systematic evaluation of nonpharmacological complementary approaches to augment PH management when addressing psychosocial and behavioral health needs. Objectives The objectives are to explore psychosocial and behavioral health needs and describe psychosocial and behavioral health interventions for patients with PH. Methods We conducted an integrative systematic review of publications between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2020, obtained from electronic databases: EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. The literature searches focused on empirical literature reporting psychosocial needs and psychosocial and behavioral health interventions for adult PH patients. We included peer-reviewed studies published in English. Search terms used in the study were: “hypertension,” “pulmonary hypertension,” “psychosocial,” “depression,” “anxiety,” “quality of life,” “behavioral health,” “self-management,” “psychosocial intervention,” and “psychological distress.” Excluded were opinion and discussion publications, reviews, non-PH populations, and pediatric articles. We used the constant comparison method to guide the synthesis of reports applying the Joanna Briggs quality assessment guidelines. Results A total of 44 articles meeting the criteria were included for final consideration. We conducted an integrative systematic review of 27 quantitative studies, narrative synthesis of 10 qualitative studies, and 7 psychosocial and behavioral health intervention studies. PH patients reported psychosocial needs, such as financial, social connections, sexual health, and palliative care needs, as well as levels of psychological distress symptoms. The results from both quantitative and qualitative studies revealed similar overarching psychosocial and behavioral health conceptual categories. Patients described their ongoing needs in PH management by relying on their psychosocial and behavioral health capabilities to adjust to changes at each stage of disease progression. Patients had high levels of psychosocial and behavioral health needs requiring interventions beyond medical treatment. Discussion Pilot studies testing psychosocial and behavioral health interventions reported improvement in levels of anxiety and depression and health-related quality of life. Larger scale studies are needed to advance this knowledge. Psychosocial and behavioral health interventions with cognitive-guided foci have the potential of meeting these unmet needs.

Associations Among Nitric Oxide and Enkephalinases With Fibromyalgia Symptoms

imageBackground Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome of uncertain etiology, characterized by the presence of widespread pain. Both nitric oxide and enkephalinases modulate pain perception. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among serum nitric oxide levels, oxytocinase activity, and enkephalin-degrading aminopeptidase (EDA) activity with pain-related clinical manifestations in women with FM. Methods We performed an observational case study in a population of 58 women diagnosed with FM. Serum nitric oxide levels were analyzed by an ozone chemiluminescence-based assay. Both serum oxytocinase and EDA activities were fluorometrically determined. Pain threshold and pain magnitude were evaluated using the PainMatcher. The pressure pain thresholds were measured using a digital pressure algometer. We used a visual analog scale, the Central Sensitization Inventory, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory to assess the global level of pain, the symptoms associated with the central sensitization syndrome, the severity of FM, and the anxiety level, respectively. Results Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted by age, body mass index, and menopause status revealed significant associations between nitric oxide levels and dominant occiput pressure pain thresholds, nondominant occiput pressure pain thresholds, and FM effects. Significant associations of oxytocinase activity with the visual analog scale and dominant knee pressure pain thresholds were also found. Moreover, results showed a significant association between high EDA activity levels and dominant second-rib pressure pain thresholds. Discussion Our data have shown significant relationships of serum nitric oxide levels and oxytocinase and EDA activities with some body pressure pain thresholds, the daily activity level, and the global intensity of pain in women with FM. These results suggest that pain, which is the main symptom of this syndrome, may be related to alterations in nitric oxide levels and in oxytocinase and EDA activities in patients with FM.

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effects of “Mindful Moms”: A Mindful Physical Activity Intervention for Pregnant Women with Depression

imageBackground Nonpharmacological and accessible therapies that engage individuals in self-management are needed to address depressive symptoms in pregnancy. The 12-week “Mindful Moms” intervention was designed to empower pregnant women with depressive symptomatology to create personal goals and engage in mindful physical activity using prenatal yoga. Objectives This longitudinal pilot study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of the “Mindful Moms” intervention in pregnant women with depressive symptoms. Methods We evaluated enrollment and retention data (feasibility) and conducted semistructured interviews (acceptability). We evaluated the intervention’s effects over time on participants’ depressive symptoms, anxiety, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and maternal–child attachment, and we compared findings to an archival comparison group, also assessed longitudinally. Results Enrollment and retention rates and positive feedback from participants support the intervention’s acceptability and feasibility. “Mindful Moms” participants experienced decreases in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, ruminations, and maternal–child attachment and no change in physical activity self-efficacy from baseline to postintervention. Comparisons of the “Mindful Moms” intervention to the comparison groups over time indicated differences in depressive symptoms between all groups and a trend in differences in perceived stress. Discussion Results support the feasibility and acceptability of “Mindful Moms” for pregnant women with depressive symptoms and suggest that further research is warranted to evaluate this intervention for reducing depressive and related symptoms. Lack of a concurrent control group, with equivalent attention from study staff, and no randomization limit the generalizability of this study; yet, these preliminary findings support future large-scale randomized controlled trials to further evaluate this promising intervention.

Controlled Drinking Behaviors Among Korean American and Korean Male Workers

imageBackground A permissive drinking culture is one reason for the high level of alcohol consumption among Korean men. Despite shared experiences of the Korean drinking culture that often encourages social drinking, Korean American and Korean male workers may differ in their drinking behavior. This study examines the predictors of controlled drinking behavior and between these two groups. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the predictors of controlled drinking behavior between Korean American and Korean male workers. Methods Two hundred eighty-two male participants (141 Korean Americans and 141 Koreans) who engaged in social drinking were surveyed. Ajzen's theory of planned behavior was used to examine the predictors of controlled drinking behavior. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the theoretical model for each group, followed by multiple-group analyses. Results Most participants were college-educated and white-collar workers. Korean American workers had fewer heavy episodic drinking days in the past month than Korean workers. Model testing for each group revealed that subjective norms and perceived behavioral control predicted intentions of controlled drinking, but only perceived behavioral control was a significant predictor of controlled drinking behavior. Multiple-group analyses indicated no difference between the two groups regarding the predictors of controlled drinking behaviors. Discussion Programs to promote controlled drinking for Korean American and Korean male workers should incorporate strategies to increase perceived behavioral control, such as training on how to decline drinking. In addition, early education for healthy drinking culture with a strict drinking environment needs to be considered to improve controlled drinking behaviors.
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