Fatigue is a common symptom in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is influenced by many physiological, psychological, and situational factors. However, the influencing factors of fatigue associated with IBD have not been evaluated.
This study aims to examine factors associated with fatigue during IBD and develop a parsimonious model that describes the influencing factors of fatigue.
The study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data obtained from IBD Partners, an online cohort of adults with the disease, including 12,053 eligible participants. Data were collected using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short-form scales measuring fatigue, sleep disturbances, pain interference, anxiety, depression, and satisfaction with social roles. Physical activity was measured using a single question. Demographic and clinical variables were collected. Path analysis was computed to identify the direct and indirect effects of situational, physiological, and psychological factors on IBD–fatigue based on the middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms’ conceptual framework.
Most of the participants were White females. The data best fit a model with situational factors (physical activity and satisfaction with social roles as the mediators). The direct effect of IBD activity, age, sleep disturbances, pain interference, anxiety, and depression on IBD–fatigue was significant. Significant indirect effects were noted on IBD–fatigue from sleep disturbances, pain interference, and depression via physical activity and satisfaction with social roles.
The study identified two important intervening variables from the tested model. In addition, other symptoms such as sleep, pain, anxiety, and depression are essential and also influence IBD–fatigue.