Up to 50% of patients develop post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) after an above knee deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of graduated compression stockings in preventing PTS after DVT.
Pragmatic, UK multicentre randomised trial in adults with first above knee DVT. The standard of care arm is anticoagulation. The intervention arm will receive anticoagulation plus stockings (European class II, 23–32 mm Hg compression) worn for a median of 18 months. The primary endpoint is PTS using the Villalta score. Analysis of this will be through a time to event approach and cumulative incidence at median 6, 12 and 18 months. An ongoing process evaluation will examine factors contributing to adherence to stockings to understand if and how the behavioural interventions were effective.
UK research ethics committee approval (reference 19/LO/1585). Dissemination though the charity Thrombosis UK, the Imperial College London website, peer-reviewed publications and international conferences.
ISRCTN registration number 73041168.
Chiari 1 malformation (CM1) is a structural abnormality of the hindbrain characterised by the descent of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. The management of patients with CM1 remains contentious since there are currently no UK or international guidelines for clinicians. We therefore propose a collaborative, prospective, multicentre study on the investigation, management and outcome of CM1 in the UK: the UK Chiari 1 Study (UKC1S). Our primary objective is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with a new diagnosis of CM1 managed either conservatively or surgically at 12 months of follow-up. We also aim to: (A) determine HRQoL 12 months following surgery; (B) measure complications 12 months following surgery; (C) determine the natural history of patients with CM1 treated conservatively without surgery; (D) determine the radiological correlates of presenting symptoms, signs and outcomes; and (E) determine the scope and variation within UK practice in referral patterns, patient pathways, investigations and surgical decisions.
The UKC1S will be a prospective, multicentre and observational study that will follow the British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative model of collaborative research. Patients will be recruited after attending their first neurosurgical outpatient clinic appointment. Follow-up data will be collected from all patients at 12 months from baseline regardless of whether they are treated surgically or not. A further 12-month postoperative follow-up timepoint will be added for patients treated with decompressive surgery. The study is expected to last three years.
The UKC1S received a favourable ethical opinion from the East Midlands Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (REC reference: 20/EM/0053; IRAS 269739) and the Health Research Authority. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals, presented at scientific conferences, shared with collaborating sites and shared with participant patients if they so wish.
To examine changes in the screening, diagnosis, treatment and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) patients, and investigate the impacts of DRTB-related policies on patients of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.
A retrospective cohort study using registry data, plus a survey on DRTB-related policies.
All prefecture-level Centres for Disease Control in Zhejiang Province, China.
Alongside the care cascade, we examined: (1) reported number of presumptive DRTB patients; (2) percentage of presumptive patients with drug susceptibility testing (DST) records; (3) percentage of DRTB/rifampicin-resistant (RR) patients registered; (4) percentage of RR/multidrug-resistant TB (MDRTB) patients that received anti-DRTB treatment; and (5) percentage of RR/MDRTB patients cured/completed treatment among those treated. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to explore the impacts of DRTB policies after adjusting for other factors.
The number of reported presumptive DRTB patients and the percentage with DST records largely increased during 2015–2018, and the percentage of registered patients who received anti-DRTB treatment also increased from 59.0% to 86.5%. Patients under the policies of equipping GeneXpert plus expanded criteria for DST had a higher likelihood of being registered compared with no GeneXpert (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.57, 95% CI: 1.20 to 5.51), while for treatment initiation the association was only significant when further expanding the registration criteria (aOR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.19 to 4.79). Patients with registered residence inside Zhejiang were more likely to be registered (aOR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.52), treated (aOR=3.83, 95% CI: 2.78 to 5.28) and complete treatment (aOR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.59) compared with those outside.
The policy changes on DST and registration have effectively improved DRTB case finding and care. Nevertheless, challenges remain in servicing vulnerable groups such as migrants and improving equity in the access to TB care. Future policies should provide comprehensive support for migrants to complete treatment at their current place of residence.
To examine the association between the number of visits to the emergency department (ED) by children for night-time headaches and exposure to multifaceted factors, such as meteorological conditions and air pollution.
We conducted a clinical observational time-series analysis study.
We reviewed consecutive patients younger than 16 years of age at the primary ED centre in Kobe city, Japan, during the night shift (19:30–7:00 hours) between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2019.
In total, 265 191 children visited the ED; 822 presented with headache during the study period.
We investigated the effects of meteorological factors and air pollutants by multivariate analysis of Poisson regression estimates. A subanalysis included the relationship between the number of patients with night-time headaches and the above factors by sex. Furthermore, the effect of typhoon landing on patient visits for headache was also analysed. Headache was not classified because examinations were performed by general paediatricians (non-specialists).
The number of patients with night-time headaches displayed distinct seasonal changes, with peaks during the summer. Multivariate analysis of Poisson regression estimates revealed a significant positive relationship between the number of patients for headache and mean temperature. Subanalysis by sex indicated a positive relationship between the number of patients with headache and mean temperature in both sexes; however, it was significant only for females. No relationship was found between the number of patients with headache and air pollution. There was no change in the number of patients for night-time headaches 3 days before and after typhoon landing.
High temperature is the main factor for visiting ED for night-time headaches among children in Kobe city. Our results suggest that preventive measures against night-time headaches may be possible by reducing time spent outside during summer.
Episiotomy is still performed widely by obstetricians and midwives in some Chinese maternity units, but the reasons are unknown. This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitude and experience towards the practice of episiotomy among obstetricians and midwives in China’s public hospitals and consider strategies to reduce its practice.
A cross-sectional web survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among obstetricians and midwives in 90 public hospitals in Henan Province, China.
900 (82.21%) participants completed the questionnaire. Average knowledge level (4.15, SD=1.10) on complications and overuse was identified among participants. Episiotomy was performed more frequently in secondary hospitals than in tertiary hospitals (p
In sum, episiotomy was driven by previous training, practitioners’ experience and local norms rather than the latest medical evidence. Clinicians in secondary hospitals and senior clinicians are key training targets. It is urgent to improve current clinical policies and surgical procedure guidelines for obstetricians and midwives regarding episiotomy.
Evaluate the accuracy of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT), International Breast Cancer Intervention Study risk evaluation tool (IBIS), Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) and combined scores (BCRAT+PRS and IBIS +PRS) to predict the occurrence of invasive breast cancers at 5 years in a French-Canadian population.
Population-based cohort study.
We used the population-based cohort CARTaGENE, composed of 43 037 Quebec residents aged between 40 and 69 years and broadly representative of the population recorded on the Quebec administrative health insurance registries.
10 200 women recruited in 2009–2010 were included for validating BCRAT and IBIS and 4555 with genetic information for validating the PRS and combined scores.
We computed the absolute risks of breast cancer at 5 years using BCRAT, IBIS, four published PRS and combined models. We reported the overall calibration performance, goodness-of-fit test and discriminatory accuracy.
131 (1.28%) women developed a breast cancer at 5 years for validating BCRAT and IBIS and 58 (1.27%) for validating PRS and combined scores. Median follow-up was 5 years. BCRAT and IBIS had an overall expected-to-observed ratio of 1.01 (0.85–1.19) and 1.02 (0.86–1.21) but with significant differences when partitioning by risk groups (p
In this French-Canadian population-based cohort, BCRAT and IBIS have good mean calibration that could be improved for risk subgroups, and modest discriminatory accuracy. Despite this modest discriminatory power, these tools can be of interest for primary care physicians for delivering a personalised message to their high-risk patients, regarding screening and lifestyle counselling.
This study aims to define appropriate domains and items for the development of a self-administered questionnaire to assess the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) and the risk of its progression to chronicity.
Literature review and survey study.
A literature review and a two-round interview with 15 experts in musculoskeletal pain were performed to identify the available domains for WMSD assessment.
To ensure quality, only validated questionnaires were included for the Delphi process. A three-round Delphi method, with three round steps, was used to select the most pertinent and relevant domains and items.
Nine questionnaires were identified through the expert discussion and literature review, comprising 38 candidate domains and 504 items. In the first round of the Delphi group, 17 domains reached more than 70% agreement and were selected. In the second round, 10 domains were rejected, while 11 were selected to complete the pool of domains. In the third and final round, 89 items belonging to 28 domains were defined as significant to develop a WMSDs risk assessment questionnaire.
No specific risk assessment questionnaires for WMSDs were identified from the literature. WMSD risk of presence and chronicity can be defined by an assessment tool based on the biopsychosocial model and the fear-avoidance components of chronic pain. The present study provides the formulation and operationalisation of the constructs in domains and items needed for developing and validating the questionnaire.
In oncology and palliative care, patient question prompt lists (QPLs) with sample questions for patient and family increased patients’ involvement in decision-making and improved outcomes if physicians actively endorsed asking questions. Therefore, we aim to evaluate practitioners’ perceptions of acceptability and possible use of a QPL about palliative and end-of-life care in dementia.
Mixed-methods evaluation study of a QPL developed with family caregivers and experts comprising a survey and interviews with practitioners.
Two academic medical training centres for primary and long-term care in the Netherlands.
Practitioners (n=66; 73% woman; mean of 21 (SD 11) years of experience) who were mostly general practitioners and elderly care physicians.
The main survey outcome was acceptability measured with a 15–75 acceptability scale with ≥45 meaning ‘acceptable’.
The survey response rate was 21% (66 of 320 participated). The QPL was regarded as acceptable (mean 51, SD 10) but 64% felt it was too long. Thirty-five per cent would want training to be able to answer the questions. Those who felt unable to answer (31%) found the QPL less acceptable (mean 46 vs 54 for others; p=0.015). We identified three themes from nine interviews: (1) enhancing conversations through discussing difficult topics, (2) proactively engaging in end-of-life conversations and (3) possible implementation.
Acceptability of the QPL was adequate, but physicians feeling confident to be able to address questions about end-of-life care is crucial when implementing it in practice, and may require training. To facilitate discussions of advance care planning and palliative care, families and persons with dementia should also be empowered to access the QPL themselves.