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Effects of Physical Activity on Neurophysiological and Gene Expression Profiles in Chronic Back Pain: Study Protocol

imageBackground Despite the emphasis on exercise to reduce pain and improve function among people with chronic low back pain (cLBP), little is known about the underlying mechanism of the impact of exercise on the neurophysiological and gene transcription alterations that characterize cLBP. Objectives To present a study protocol to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of Problem-Solving Pain to Enhance Living Well (PROPEL) with the support of nurse consultations and wearable activity-tracking technology on self-management (SM) knowledge, skills, physical activity, and pain and to examine the differential neurophysiological and gene expression profiles in cLBP participants from pre- to post-PROPEL. Methods A pretest and posttest study is employed on 40 adults ages 18–60 years with cLBP who do not have serious complications and/or comorbidities that affect sensorimotor function. Participants will receive video modules focused on SM and biweekly phone consultations to facilitate symptom monitoring and problem-solving while increasing physical activity frequency and duration. Participants will be assessed for outcomes including SM skills, physical activity, and pain every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. We will examine the participants’ differential neurophysiological and gene expression profiles at 12 weeks postintervention and correlate these outcomes with the total duration of physical activity. Results The study began in September 2018. Of the 99 subjects that were screened, 23 were enrolled and 8 completed data collection. Discussion Comparing the neurophysiological and gene expression profiles of people with cLBP exposed to PROPEL could inform the development of interventions that offer personalized physical activity dosage along with general SM support. Web-based programs such as PROPEL have the potential to enhance accessibility of evidence-based interventions that improve functionality and quality of life among people living with cLBP.

Efficacy of a Breastfeeding Pain Self-Management Intervention: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

imageBackground Over 90% of women experience pain during breastfeeding initiation and lack strategies to self-manage breast and nipple pain. Guided by the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory, a breastfeeding self-management (BSM) intervention targeted women's knowledge, beliefs, and social facilitation to manage their breast and nipple pain and achieve their breastfeeding goals. Objectives The purpose of this longitudinal pilot randomized control trial (RCT) was to test the preliminary efficacy of the BSM intervention on general and specific pain related to breastfeeding. Methods Sixty women intending to breastfeed were approached within 48 hours of delivery to participate in this pilot RCT (30 randomized to the BSM intervention and 30 randomized to the control group). All participants provided baseline data before discharge and pain and breastfeeding measures at 1, 2, and 6 weeks. Participants in the BSM intervention group received educational modules addressing breast and nipple pain and biweekly, text-based nurse coaching and completed a daily breastfeeding journal. Results Women in the BSM intervention group reported significantly less breast and nipple pain at 1 and 2 weeks using a visual analog scale (p