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Associations Among Nitric Oxide and Enkephalinases With Fibromyalgia Symptoms

imageBackground Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome of uncertain etiology, characterized by the presence of widespread pain. Both nitric oxide and enkephalinases modulate pain perception. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among serum nitric oxide levels, oxytocinase activity, and enkephalin-degrading aminopeptidase (EDA) activity with pain-related clinical manifestations in women with FM. Methods We performed an observational case study in a population of 58 women diagnosed with FM. Serum nitric oxide levels were analyzed by an ozone chemiluminescence-based assay. Both serum oxytocinase and EDA activities were fluorometrically determined. Pain threshold and pain magnitude were evaluated using the PainMatcher. The pressure pain thresholds were measured using a digital pressure algometer. We used a visual analog scale, the Central Sensitization Inventory, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory to assess the global level of pain, the symptoms associated with the central sensitization syndrome, the severity of FM, and the anxiety level, respectively. Results Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted by age, body mass index, and menopause status revealed significant associations between nitric oxide levels and dominant occiput pressure pain thresholds, nondominant occiput pressure pain thresholds, and FM effects. Significant associations of oxytocinase activity with the visual analog scale and dominant knee pressure pain thresholds were also found. Moreover, results showed a significant association between high EDA activity levels and dominant second-rib pressure pain thresholds. Discussion Our data have shown significant relationships of serum nitric oxide levels and oxytocinase and EDA activities with some body pressure pain thresholds, the daily activity level, and the global intensity of pain in women with FM. These results suggest that pain, which is the main symptom of this syndrome, may be related to alterations in nitric oxide levels and in oxytocinase and EDA activities in patients with FM.

Influence of Oxidative Stress-Related Genes on Susceptibility to Fibromyalgia

imageBackground Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome to diagnose and treat because of its unknown etiology. However, previous studies reported that patients with FM experience oxidative stress. Objectives In this study, we investigated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding enzymes involved in oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase 1 [SOD1], catalase, and NADPH oxidase [CYBA]) in patients with FM and in healthy subjects, as well as the possible relation with demographic and clinical manifestations of FM. Methods A total of 141 patients with FM and 73 healthy subjects participated in this case–control study. For DNA extraction, buccal swabs were collected from patients with FM, and a peripheral blood sample was extracted from controls. We analyzed SNPs in genes related to oxidative stress (rs10432782 in SOD1, rs1001179 in catalase, and rs4673 in CYBA) using TaqMan probes. In patients with FM, severity of FM, fatigue, and pain were assessed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), respectively. Physical (PCS-12) and mental (MCS-12) health statuses were evaluated by the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results The selected SNPs did not show significant differences between patients with FM and controls. The rs10432782 (SOD1) was associated with Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire scores in patients with FM, whereas the rs4673 (CYBA) was associated with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory score, MCS-12 score, and duration of the disease. Discussion We have identified significant correlations between SOD1 and CYBA variants with clinical manifestations of FM. These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of FM that could be useful for guiding future studies along the way to find the cause(s) of this syndrome.

Mediterranean Diet, Body Composition, and Activity Associated With Bone Health in Women With Fibromyalgia Syndrome

imageBackground There is very little scientific literature on the potential relationships between modifiable factors, including body composition, dietary pattern and physical activity (PA), and bone status in patients with fibromyalgia—a musculoskeletal condition characterized by chronic, widespread pain that is often accompanied by a broad spectrum of symptoms. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of body composition parameters, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med Diet), and PA on bone health in a population of premenopausal and postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods Ninety-five women diagnosed with FMS were included in this cross-sectional study. Body composition, including fat mass, percentage of fat mass, and lean mass (LM), were calculated using a body composition analyzer. Adherence to the Med Diet was measured through a validated 14-item questionnaire. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA. Bone mass at the calcaneus was estimated through quantitative ultrasound. Results Linear regression analysis revealed that LM had a significant association with broadband ultrasound attenuation (β = 0.211, 95% CI [0.046, 1.259], p = .035) and stiffness index parameters (β = 0.201, 95% CI [0.019, 1.654], p = .045) after adjusting for age and menopausal status. The Med Diet was also significantly associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (β = 1.693, 95% CI [0.508, 2.879], p = .006). Discussion LM and the Med Diet were consistently associated with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound parameters, supporting the hypothesis that LM and adherence to the Med Diet play determinant roles in bone health in FMS women. Training programs to maximize LM and strategies for promoting good adherence to the Med Diet should be considered in order to prevent the development of osteoporosis in FMS women. Because nurses are involved in implementing preventive programs, their roles in promoting this adherence to the Med Diet and maximizing LM in patients with FMS should help reduce the impact of osteoporosis.