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Efficacy of a Breastfeeding Pain Self-Management Intervention: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

imageBackground Over 90% of women experience pain during breastfeeding initiation and lack strategies to self-manage breast and nipple pain. Guided by the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory, a breastfeeding self-management (BSM) intervention targeted women's knowledge, beliefs, and social facilitation to manage their breast and nipple pain and achieve their breastfeeding goals. Objectives The purpose of this longitudinal pilot randomized control trial (RCT) was to test the preliminary efficacy of the BSM intervention on general and specific pain related to breastfeeding. Methods Sixty women intending to breastfeed were approached within 48 hours of delivery to participate in this pilot RCT (30 randomized to the BSM intervention and 30 randomized to the control group). All participants provided baseline data before discharge and pain and breastfeeding measures at 1, 2, and 6 weeks. Participants in the BSM intervention group received educational modules addressing breast and nipple pain and biweekly, text-based nurse coaching and completed a daily breastfeeding journal. Results Women in the BSM intervention group reported significantly less breast and nipple pain at 1 and 2 weeks using a visual analog scale (p
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