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Factors affecting the quality of dementia care at acute care hospitals: A cross‐sectional study

Abstract

Aim and Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors are associated with the quality of dementia care in acute care hospitals.

Background

The number of people with dementia who are admitted to acute care hospitals is increasing. Improving the quality of dementia care in acute care hospitals is an important issue. Prior studies have demonstrated that not only knowledge and nursing experience, but also psychological factors and the nursing practice environment are related to high-quality care on general wards.

Design

Cross-sectional hypothesis-testing design.

Methods

Participants were nurses providing care to people with dementia at acute care hospitals. Questionnaires were distributed to 300 acute care hospitals in Japan, 10 copies each and 773 valid responses were received. Based on the hypothesis model, variables were tested using multiple regression analysis. The model described the relationship between quality of care, personal attributes and the nursing practice environment. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist was used.

Results

Almost 90% of the study sample was female, the mean age was 37.4 ± 9.3 years, and the mean nursing experience was 14.0 ± 8.7 years. The results showed that nursing foundations for quality of care, staffing and resource adequacy, specialist consultation, promoting systematic recreation and exchange, knowledge, and feelings towards people with dementia were associated with the quality of dementia care in acute care hospitals. The adjusted coefficient of determination was 0.367.

Conclusion

This study identified factors associated with the quality of dementia care in acute care hospitals. Knowledge and feelings towards people with dementia are important, and the nursing practice environment plays an important role in improving the quality of dementia care.

Relevance to Clinical Practice

Not only improving nurse's practical ability but also a supportive nursing practice environment enhances the quality of dementia care in acute care hospitals.

Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Outcomes in Women with a History of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: Integrative Review

ABSTRACT

Background

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increase a woman’s risk for developing cardiovascular disease, with risk factors manifested as early as one year postpartum. Researchers are examining how physical activity may help to mitigate cardiovascular risk factors in this population.

Aim

Review the existing scientific literature on the impact of physical activity in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy related to physical activity and cardiovascular risk factor outcomes.

Methods

This integrative review examined research studies addressing physical activity in women with a history of preeclampsia or other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Using four databases, the search strategy included published studies through December 31, 2019. Identified studies were assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools.

Results

The initial search identified 1,166 publications. Seven studies including two observational, four quasi-experimental, and one experimental study were included in the review. Although the studies had limitations, none of these limitations were deemed significant enough to eliminate a study from the review. Studies were conducted in four countries, and participants were predominantly White. Physical activity interventions primarily consisted of delivery of educational content, and data were primarily obtained by self-report. Of the five studies utilizing intervention strategies, three reported positive findings including increased physical activity, enhanced physiologic adaptations, and decreased physical inactivity. One study reported mixed findings of improved physical fitness in both groups, while another reported no change in intent to change exercise behavior associated with the intervention.

Linking Evidence to Action

Physical activity promotion among women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy has been studied by a small group of researchers. Current literature on the topic is characterized by limited sample diversity, lack of exercise-based interventions, and over reliance on self-report to measure physical activity. It is imperative that further research be conducted to facilitate improved cardiovascular outcomes.

The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership Practices of First‐Line Nurse Managers and Nurses’ Organizational Resilience and Job Involvement: A Structural Equation Modeling

Abstract

Background

Nurse leaders play a unique role in seeking ways to promote a strong nurse workforce and positive work attitudes and behaviors among nurses to assist in their success. The leadership practice of nurse managers could be an important factor in promoting nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.

Aim

To determine the relationship between transformational leadership practices of first-line nurse managers and nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.

Methods

A descriptive correlational research design was conducted at a Saudi university hospital. The study consisted of 60 nurse managers and 211 nurses. Measures included Leadership Practices Inventory, organizational resilience, and job involvement questionnaires. Results were analyzed using inferential statistics and Structural Equation Modeling.

Results

In addition to the positive significant correlation found among the studied variables, First-Line Nurse Managers’ Leadership practices accounted for 43% and 40% of the variance of nurses’ organizational resilience and job involvement.

Linking Evidence to Action

Nurse leaders perform a crucial role in embracing and executing effective strategies through their transformational leadership and managerial caring to support nurses’ resilience and job involvement. Shared governance and a respectful working atmosphere that conveys gratitude to nurses are popular strategies that enhance the efficacy of nursing leadership and promote positive work attitudes among nurses.

A nomogram prediction of pressure injury in critical ill patients: A retrospective cohort study

Abstract

Pressure injury (PI) is still a significant public health problem to be solved. Accurate prediction can lead to timely prophylaxis and therapy. However, the currently used Braden score shows insufficient predictive validity. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict PI development in critically ill patients. We extracted data from Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV v1.0. Variable selection was based on univariate logistic regression and all-subset regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the performance of the nomogram and Braden score. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was performed to identify and compare the clinical usefulness between the nomogram model and Braden score. We have developed a novel and practical nomogram that accurately predicts pressure ulcers. The AUC of the new model was better than that of the Braden score (P < .001). DCA showed that the nomogram model had a better net benefit than the Braden score at any given threshold. This finding needs to be confirmed by external validation as well as multicentre prospective studies.

Does participation in extended immersive ward‐based simulation improve the preparedness of undergraduate bachelor’s degree nursing students to be ready for clinical practice as a registered nurse? An integrative literature review

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To determine if extended immersive ward-based simulation programmes improve the preparedness of undergraduate bachelor's degree nursing students to be ward ready for professional practice as a registered nurse.

Background

The practice readiness of new graduate nurses to enter the workforce continues to raise concern among educators and industry. Often the transition period is a vulnerable time when the reality of clinical practice bears little resemblance of their experiences as a student. Simulation of a busy ward offers the opportunity for pre-registered nurses to practise a variety of situations they are likely to encounter once qualified in a safe and supportive learning environment.

Methods

The review considered studies that investigated the experiences and learning outcomes of nursing students following participation in extended immersive ward-based simulation. Databases searched included CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline and Scopus. Two reviewers independently assessed retrieved studies that matched inclusion criteria using standardised critical appraisal instruments. Reporting of review followed PRISMA checklist.

Results

Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used a quasi-experimental mixed methods approach (10). Programme evaluations focused on self-reporting in learning satisfaction and student perceptions of performance. Six studies used a pre- and post-test design to compare the after effect on preparedness for professional practice. Two studies investigated student learning between simulated experiences and experiences gained during clinical placements.

Conclusion

Learning satisfaction was high among students who participated in programmes that incorporated extended immersive ward-based simulation experiences. Students are able to practise what they need to know and on what will be expected of them in professional practice. Evidence on whether these programmes make a difference in workplace performance, and retention of graduate nurses is yet to be established.

Relevance to clinical practice

Extended immersive ward-based simulation allows educators the opportunity to meet the perceived needs of students in preparation for professional practice.

Exploring newly qualified nurses’ experiences of support and perceptions of peer support online: A qualitative study

Abstract

Aims and Objectives

To explore newly qualified nurses’ support needs and their perceptions of online peer support.

Background

The experience of being a newly qualified nurse is stressful and isolating. Support from colleagues and peers can enhance perceptions of competence and confidence in newly qualified nurses, improve well-being and aid retention. However, despite initiatives such as preceptorship, support needs may remain unmet in busy clinical environments. Online support has potential to offer a partial solution to professional isolation, but there is a lack of research into how technology can support nurses’ emotional and social well-being.

Design

A qualitative exploratory study was designed, employing semi-structured focus groups, analysed using thematic analysis. The study is reported in accordance with the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research checklist.

Methods

Eight focus groups, supplemented by one individual interview, were conducted with newly qualified nurses between June 2018–January 2019.

Findings

Two main themes arose. The first was Drowning, a lot of the time with two sub-themes: (i) Feelings and emotions about being a Newly Qualified Nurse: ‘Absolutely terrified’ and (ii) Support within the role: ‘Somebody you can count on’. The second was Potential advantages and disadvantages of online modality: ‘Somebody is going to get in that phone!’ which included three sub-themes (i) Potential advantages, (ii) Potential disadvantages and (iii) Preferences and recommendations.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that if barriers can be overcome, then online support has potential to contribute to newly qualified nurses’ well-being. Further research is needed to explore technical and ethical issues around online support and evaluate its effectiveness for newly qualified nurses.

Relevance to clinical practice

Online support has the potential to add to existing strategies to support nurses during stressful times. This may be particularly relevant when many staff are working under increased pressure due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Workaholism, presenteeism, work–family conflicts and personal and work outcomes: Testing a moderated mediation model

Abstract

Aims and objectives

While research suggests that nurses who experience work–family conflicts (WFC) are less satisfied and perform less well, these negative outcomes may be more important for some nurses. This study proposes a mediated moderation model wherein the interaction between two individual characteristics, workaholism and presenteeism, relates to family life satisfaction and work performance with WFC mediating these relationships.

Background

Because a limited number of nursing studies have examined the potential outcomes of workaholism and presenteeism, we extend past research to address the question of how workaholism and presenteeism affect nurses’ functioning.

Design

We used a cross-sectional questionnaire survey design to test our hypotheses. STROBE guidelines for cross-sectional research were followed in designing and reporting this study.

Methods

A total of 419 nurses completed measures of workaholism, presenteeism, WFC, family life satisfaction and work performance.

Results

Results revealed that the relationships between workaholism and outcomes (family life satisfaction and work performance) through WFC were stronger among nurses characterised by high levels of presenteeism.

Conclusions

These results revealed that high presenteeism may exacerbate the negative relationships of workaholism to family life satisfaction and work performance through WFC.

Relevance to clinical practice

Healthcare organisations and managers should consider addressing work environment factors in their efforts to reduce the negative outcomes (e.g., low family satisfaction and work performance) of nurses’ workaholism, presenteeism and WFC.

‘I want to get back!’ A qualitative study of long‐term critically ill patients’ inner strength and willpower: Back home after long‐term intensive care

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To provide insights into what promotes and challenges inner strength and willpower in formerly critically ill patients back home after a long-term ICU stay.

Background

Critically ill patients demand great resources during an ICU stay, some experience great challenges after discharge from hospital. Knowledge about how health professionals can promote former long-term critically ill patients’ inner strength and willpower after discharge is essential, but still missing.

Design

A qualitative, hermeneutic-phenomenological approach using in-depth interviews with former long-term ICU patients.

Methods

Seventeen long-term ICU patients were interviewed 6–20 months after ICU discharge. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research was used (COREQ,2007).

Results

Back home after hospital discharge, some former patients coped well while others suffered heavy burdens mentally and physically, along with economic problems. They handled their challenges differently: some found comfort and insight by reading their diary written by their ICU nurses, while several were struggling alone experiencing a lonesome silent suffering; these called for a follow-up support by the healthcare system.

Conclusion

Long-term ICU patients’ inner strength and willpower are vital salutogenic resources supporting the fight back to one’s former independent life. However, physical, mental and economic challenges drain their inner strength to go on and succeed. Several long-term ICU patients need health-promoting follow-up support after hospital discharge.

Relevance to clinical practice

This study disclosed a lonely and silent suffering indicating a need for development of systematical health-promoting follow-up programmes including salutogenic components such as health-promoting conversations, diaries and web-based recovery programme along with a cell phone app.

Prognostic value of a brief loneliness questionnaire for patients with coronary heart disease: Proposal for a prediction model

Abstract

Background

In patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), loneliness is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. No predictive tool is available to detect patients who are influenced by loneliness to a degree that impacts mortality.

Aim

To: (i) propose a prediction model that detects patients influenced by loneliness to a degree that increases one-year all-cause mortality, (ii) evaluate model classification performance of the prediction model, and (iii) investigate potential questionnaire response errors.

Method

A cohort of patients with CHD (n = 7169) responded to a national cross-sectional survey, including two questions on loneliness. Information on cohabitation and follow-up information on one-year all-cause mortality were obtained from national registers. Prediction model development was based on the prognostic values of item responses in the questionnaire on loneliness and of cohabitation, evaluated with Cox-proportional Hazards Ratio (HR). Item responses which significantly predicted one-year mortality were included in the high-risk loneliness (HiRL) prediction model. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio were calculated to evaluate model classification performance. Sources of response errors were evaluated using verbal probing technique in an additional cohort (n = 7). The TRIPOD checklist has been used to ensure transparent reporting.

Results

Two item responses significantly predicted one-year mortality HR = 2.24 (95%CI = 1.24–4.03) and HR = 2.65 (95%CI = 1.32–5.32) and were thus included in the model. Model classification performance showed a likelihood ratio of 1.89. Response error was evaluated as low.

Conclusion

Based on the prognostic value in a loneliness questionnaire, a prediction model suitable to screen patients with CHD for high-risk loneliness was suggested.

Relevance to clinical practice

The HiRL prediction model is a short and easy-to-use screening tool that offers clinical staff to identify patients with CHD who are influenced by loneliness to a degree that impacts mortality. However, further evaluation of model performance and questionnaire validation is recommended before integrating the model into clinical practice.

An injectable metal nanoparticle containing cellulose derivative‐based hydrogels: Evaluation of antibacterial and in vitro‐vivo wound healing activity in children with burn injuries

An injectable metal nanoparticle containing cellulose derivative-based hydrogels: Evaluation of antibacterial and in vitro-vivo wound healing activity in children with burn injuries


Abstract

The preparation of hydrogels for wound healing properties with high antibacterial activities and good biosafety concurrently can be relatively challenging. For addressing these issues, we report on the synthesis and characterisation of a nanocomposite hydrogel dressing by introducing the silver nanoparticles in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-hydroxyapatite scaffold hydrogel (HMC-HA/AgNPs). The different concentrations of AgNPs in HMC-HA/AgNPs hydrogels were confirmed by swelling ratio, degradation, and gelatin time. The synthesised HMC-HA/AgNPs hydrogels were further characterised using the UV-visible, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the novel HMC-HA/AgNPs hydrogel exhibited a porous 3D network and high mechanical properties because of the inter-molecular and intra-molecular interactions. The AgNPs give the HMC-HA hydrogels excellent antibacterial activities against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, without any chemical reductant and cross-linking agent required endows the hydrogel high biocompatibility. More importantly, HMC-HA/AgNPs effectively repaired wound defects in mice models, and wound healing reached 94.5 ± 1.4% within 16 days. The HMC-HA hydrogel with AgNPs showed excellent antimicrobial activity and burn wound healing. Therefore, these HMC-HA/AgNPs hydrogels have great potential as an injectable hydrogel for wound healing activity in children with burn injuries.

Predicting the different progressions of early pressure injury by ultraviolet photography in rat models

Abstract

Early pressure injury (PI) can result in either spontaneous healing (SH) or deterioration into ulcer (DU). However, determining whether PI will progress into SH or DU on the basis of non-blanchable erythema only is difficult. In this study, we constructed two animal PI models to mimic SH and DU injuries and observed haemorrhage by using ultraviolet (UV) photography to develop potential clinical indicators for predicting the progression of early PI. Macroscopy, UV photography, and skin temperature observations were obtained. In the SH group, macroscopic observation showed the erythema was obvious at 0.5 hours after decompression and faded gradually had almost disappeared at 72 hours. In the DU group, the erythema persisted, and an erosion appeared at 24 hours after decompression and expanded at 36 hours. The erythema developed into an obvious ulcer at 48 hours and enlarged at 72 hours. The obvious ulcer found at 48 hours through macroscopic observation was clearly visible at 36 hours with UV photography, and a significant difference in grey values between the two groups was found at as early as 18 hours (P < .05). This study provided evidence showing that UV photography can predict the different progression stages of early PI. Additionally, when combined with the transparent disc method, UV photography also can be used to identify the circulatory disorders of early PI, such as haemorrhage or hyperaemia and even congestion.

Improved healing of chronic diabetic foot wounds in a prospective randomised controlled multi‐centre clinical trial with a microvascular tissue allograft

Abstract

This study assesses the impact of a processed microvascular tissue (PMVT) allograft on wound closure and healing in a prospective, single-blinded, multi-centre, randomised controlled clinical trial of 100 subjects with Wagner Grade 1 and 2 chronic neuropathic diabetic foot ulcerations. In addition to standard wound care, including standardised offloading, the treatment arm received PMVT while the control arm received a collagen alginate dressing. The primary endpoint was complete wound closure at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints assessed on all subjects were percent wound area reduction, time to healing, and local neuropathy. Novel exploratory sub-studies were conducted for wound area perfusion and changes in regional neuropathy. Weekly application of PMVT resulted in increased complete wound closure at 12 weeks (74% vs 38%; P = .0003), greater percent wound area reduction from weeks four through 12 (76% vs 24%; P = .009), decreased time to healing (54 days vs 64 days; P = .009), and improved local neuropathy (118% vs 11%; P = .028) compared with the control arm. Enhanced perfusion and improved regional neuropathy were demonstrated in the sub-studies. In conclusion, this study demonstrated increased complete healing with PMVT and supports its use in treating non-healing DFUs. The observed benefit of PMVT on the exploratory regional neuropathy and perfusion endpoints warrants further study.

‘From Expert to Novice’, Perceptions of General Ward Nurses on Deployment to Outbreak Intensive Care Units during the COVID‐19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

Abstract

Aims and objectives

This study aimed to explore the perceived preparedness and psychosocial well-being of general ward nurses prior to their deployment into the outbreak intensive care units (ICUs) during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Background

With the surge in COVID-19 cases requiring ICU care, non-ICU nurses maybe deployed into the ICUs. Having experienced through SARS, hospitals in Singapore instituted upskilling programs to secure general ward nurses’ competency in providing critical care nursing. However, no studies have explored the perceptions of general ward nurses on deployment into the ICUs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design

Qualitative descriptive study.

Methods

The study was conducted at Singapore’s epicentre of COVID-19 management. Five focus groups were conducted following purposive sampling of 30 general ward nurses identified for outbreak ICU deployment. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and data thematically analysed. This study was conducted and reported in accordance with the COREQ checklist.

Results

Three salient themes arose, exemplifying the transition from clinical experts in the general wards to practising novices in the outbreak ICUs. Firstly, ‘Into the deep end of the pool’ described general ward nurses’ feelings of anxiety and stress associated with higher exposure risk and expanded responsibilities to nurse critically ill patients. Secondly, ‘Preparing for “war”’ illustrated deployed nurses’ need for clear communication and essential critical care nursing training. Lastly, ‘Call of duty’ affirmed the nurses’ personal and professional commitment to embrace this transition into the ICUs, and their desire for greater psychosocial support.

Conclusion

The study findings highlight that though general ward nurses perceived their impending ICU deployment positively, they require ongoing support to facilitate a smoother transition.

Relevance to clinical practice

Findings provided an evidence base to improve the preparedness of general ward nurses deployed into the ICUs during the COVID-19 pandemic within key areas of training, information dissemination and psychosocial resilience.

Could standing orders have a place? A phenomenological exploration of experienced ward‐based registered nurses' views on the escalation protocol for patient deterioration

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To explore experienced ward-based Registered Nurses’ views on the potential use of standing orders, prior to the escalation protocol, for patient deterioration.

Background

Ward based nurses are required to follow set steps of the escalation protocol. The introduction of standing order policies would allow nurses to intervene earlier when deterioration was first detected.

Design

Hermeneutic Phenomenology.

Methods

Ten experienced ward-based RNs were recruited. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, with the data subjected to thematic analysis. Diekelmann's framework was used to analyse the texts, seeking the highest level of hermeneutic analysis namely, a constitutive pattern. COREQ guidelines were utilised.

Results

Four main themes emerged: (1) Ambiguity in perception: the escalation protocol; (2) Observations within acceptable parameters, but the patient is deteriorating; (3) Paradoxes of escalation: well laid out protocol, but hard to escalate; (4) We could intervene with standing orders, but are we permitted? The constitutive pattern namely, Dualism in Perception related to the dissonance conveyed by participants regarding the escalation protocol.

Conclusions

Notwithstanding the benefits of the escalation protocol for junior staff, the RNs offered critique of the established escalation practices and the restrictive role of the protocol. Another aspect of the protocol, that is ‘worried criterion’ was viewed positively. The participants expressed a desire to apply nurse-driven standing orders, to enable them to intervene earlier for patient deterioration.

Relevance to clinical practice

Organisations should consider new policies introducing standing orders for implementation by experienced RNs. The engagement of experienced ward-based nurses in forming ‘patient at-risk teams’ could assist organisations to deal with cases of clinical deterioration prior to activation of the escalation of care protocol.

Characterizing Health Literacy Among Spanish Language-Preferring Latinos Ages 50–75

imageBackground Cultural background, language, and literacy are factors that may affect access, healthcare utilization, and cancer screening behaviors. Objective This study aimed to characterize health literacy among Spanish-preferring Hispanic/Latino individuals ages 50–75 and examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics, health beliefs, and health literacy. Methods Participants self-identified as Hispanic/Latino, preferring health information in Spanish, were ages 50–75 years old, at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), not up to date with CRC screening, and enrolled in a CRC screening education intervention trial. Sociodemographic characteristics, health beliefs, and health literacy (i.e., difficulty understanding written health information and confidence completing health forms) were assessed at baseline. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Fifty-three percent of participants reported either sometimes having difficulty or always having difficulty with written health information, and 25% reported always asking for help or being not so confident in completing health forms. Univariate predictors of adequate health literacy for written health information were lower cancer worry and lower religious beliefs. Higher educational attainment predicted confidence in completing health forms. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for interventions that address health beliefs and health literacy among Hispanic/Latino patients who have low confidence in completing written forms and difficulty understanding written information and reinforce the use of plain language and salient design features when developing patient education materials.

Pain and Self-Efficacy Among Patients With Systemic Sclerosis: A Scleroderma Patient-Centered Intervention Network Cohort Study

imageBackground Pain is one of the most common symptoms affecting patients with systemic sclerosis; however, little is known about the relationship between self-efficacy and pain and changes in pain over time. Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the relationships between self-efficacy and pain in patients with systemic sclerosis, as well as determine whether changes in self-efficacy mediate changes in pain. Methods A prospective longitudinal study was conducted using data from the Scleroderma Patient-Centered Intervention Network Cohort. The baseline sample included 1,903 adults, with a trajectory subsample of 427 who completed 3-month assessments across 3 years. Hierarchical (sequential) forward multivariable regression, covarying for participant characteristics, was conducted to determine the association between self-efficacy and patient characteristics on pain outcomes. Trajectory models, covarying for participant characteristics, were used to examine changes in self-efficacy and pain outcomes across time and whether self-efficacy mediated the pain trajectories. Results Mean time since diagnosis was 9.5 years, with 39.2% diagnosed with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Greater self-efficacy was associated with less pain interference and intensity. Increasing age, female gender, finger ulcers, and small joint contractures were related to greater pain interference and intensity. Esophageal gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with more pain interference. Self-efficacy and pain trajectories remained stable across time, and self-efficacy did not mediate the pain trajectories. Discussion This study identified self-efficacy, age, gender, finger ulcers, small joint contractures, and esophageal gastrointestinal symptoms as important correlates associated with pain in patients with systemic sclerosis. In addition, this study found that self-efficacy and pain outcomes remained stable over time, providing important insights into the longitudinal pain experiences of patients with systemic sclerosis.

Acceptability of Nurse-Driven HIV Screening for Key Populations in Emergency Departments: A Mixed-Methods Study

imageBackground Optimizing care continuum entry interventions is key to ending the HIV epidemic. Offering HIV screening to key populations in emergency departments (EDs) is a strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective. Analyzing patient and provider perceptions of such screening can help identify implementation facilitators and barriers. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the acceptability of offering nurse-driven HIV screening to key populations based on data collected from patients, nurses, and other service providers. Methods This convergent mixed-methods study was a substudy of a cluster-randomized two-period crossover trial conducted in eight EDs to evaluate the effectiveness of the screening strategy. During the DICI-VIH (Dépistage Infirmier CIblé du VIH) trial, questionnaires were distributed to patients aged 18–64 years. Based on their responses, nurses offered screening to members of key populations. Over 5 days during the intervention period in four EDs, 218 patients were secondarily questioned about the acceptability of screening. Nurses completed 271 questionnaires pre- and posttrial regarding acceptability in all eight EDs. Descriptive analyses were conducted on these quantitative data. Convenience and purposeful sampling was used to recruit 53 providers to be interviewed posttrial. Two coders conducted a directed qualitative content analysis of the interview transcripts independently. Results The vast majority of patients (95%) were comfortable with questions asked to determine membership in key populations and agreed (89%) that screening should be offered to key populations in EDs. Nurses mostly agreed that offering screening to key populations was well accepted by patients (62.2% pretrial and 71.4% posttrial), was easy to implement, and fell within the nursing sphere of competence. Pretrial, 73% of the nurses felt that such screening could be implemented in EDs. Posttrial, the proportion was 41%. Three themes emerged from the interviews: preference for targeted screening and a written questionnaire to identify key populations, facilitators of long-term implementation, and implementation barriers. Nurses were favorable to such screening provided specific conditions were met regarding training, support, collective involvement, and flexibility of application to overcome organizational and individual barriers. Discussion Screening for key populations was perceived as acceptable and beneficial by patients and providers. Addressing the identified facilitators and barriers would help increase screening implementation in EDs.

Mixed Methods Study of Nurse Assessment of Patient Preferences for Engagement During Hospitalization

imageBackground Global healthcare initiatives emphasize the importance of engaging patients in their healthcare to improve patients’ experience and outcomes. Assessing patient preferences for engagement is critical, as there are many ways patients can engage in their care and preferences vary across individuals. Objective The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of implementation of the Patient Preferences for Engagement Tool 13-Item Short Form (PPET13) during hospitalization on patient and nurse experience of engagement. Readmissions and emergency department (ED) usage within 30 days postdischarge were also examined. Methods The mixed methods study was conducted within two medical units in the United States between December 2018 and May 2019. Preimplementation group patients completed a demographic survey and the Patient Experience of Engagement Survey (PEES) on discharge. Implementation group patients completed the PPET13 within 24 hours of admission with their nurse and the demographic survey and PEES on discharge. A focus group with nurses who implemented the PPET13 was conducted following the implementation period. Data analysis included confirmatory factor analysis, multiple and logistic regression, and qualitative content analysis. Results There was significant improvement in PEES scores during the implementation phase. The PEES score was a significant predictor of ED visits, but not 30-day readmissions. Nurses were not always certain how to best integrate patient preferences for engagement into their care delivery and suggested integrating the PPET13 into the electronic health record to assist with streamlining the assessment and communicating preferences across the care team. Discussion Assessing patients’ preferences for engagement using the PPET13 was associated with an improved experience of engagement, which was found to mediate the relationship between utilization of PPET13 and ED usage within 30 days postdischarge. Use of a patient engagement preference tool, such as the PPET13, can help inform the delivery of individualized engagement strategies to improve patient and family engagement and outcomes; however, nurses need formalized education on how to tailor their care to meet the individual engagement preferences of their patients.

A Preliminary Investigation of Psychoneurological Symptoms in Low-Income Mothers

imageBackground Exposure to chronic stressors may contribute to the development of psychoneurological symptoms (i.e., fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbance, depressed mood, and pain) that can compromise maternal function. Objectives In two studies of low-income mothers, we investigated the presence of psychoneurological symptoms and explored associations between mothers’ stressors and psychoneurological symptoms as well as between symptoms and function. We also considered the possible mediating role of the symptoms between stressors and function. Methods We conducted secondary analyses of psychoneurological symptoms in two studies of low-income mothers of infants and toddlers in the United States. Study 1 sampled Latina women with limited English proficiency, whereas Study 2 was conducted with English-speaking women from diverse backgrounds. In both studies, symptoms were measured using items from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey. Maternal function was measured through self-report and researcher observation. In Study 2, stressors were measured using the Everyday Stressors Index. Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate associations while controlling for relevant covariates. Results In both studies, mothers endorsed a wide range of psychoneurological symptoms. In Study 1, psychoneurological symptoms had significant negative associations with role function, social function, and developmental stimulation. In Study 2, psychoneurological symptoms had significant negative associations with role function, social function, and physical function. Using Aroian test for mediation, we found that psychoneurological symptoms mediated all significant relationships between stressors and maternal functions in Study 2. Discussion In two samples of low-income mothers, psychoneurological symptoms were prevalent and associated with chronic stressors and with maternal function and may mediate the association between those two factors. These findings extend prior research on depressive symptoms in mothers by investigating pain as an additional key symptom. The studies advance symptom science by highlighting psychoneurological symptoms in a heterogeneous sample without known health conditions.

Dual‐lumen power injectable peripherally inserted central catheters in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A prospective observational study

Abstract

Aims and Objectives

To explore whether dual-lumen power injectable peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) could be effectively and safely applied in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and for serum cyclosporine level monitoring.

Background

Compared to conventional central venous access devices, PICC provides a feasible route not only for fluid infusion, but also for blood sample collection in patients undergoing oncological treatments.

Design

A prospective observational study was conducted according to the STROBE guidelines.

Methods

We prospectively evaluated the applications and complications of power injectable PICCs in 52 consecutive allo-HSCT recipients. We also compared the cyclosporine levels in 188 paired blood samples, simultaneously obtained via power injectable PICCs and percutaneous venous puncture, to investigate whether power injectable PICC is a feasible route for cyclosporine concentration monitoring in allo-HSCT.

Results

The median PICC placement duration was 29 days. The insertion-site blood oozing and central line-associated bloodstream infection rates were 36.5% (19/52) and 26.9% (14/52), respectively, indicating the feasibility of these PICCs for various applications in allo-HSCT. No power injectable PICC-related thrombotic adverse events were identified; 90.4% (47/52) of cases with power injectable PICC removal occurred because of lack of medical utility, suggesting that power injectable PICC-related complications were manageable. However, cyclosporine levels in samples obtained via these PICCs were significantly higher than those in samples obtained via percutaneous venous puncture (261.5 ± 139.2 vs. 232.4 ± 253.6 ng/ml; p = 0.019 [set 1]; 254.8 ± 89.3 vs. 225.1 ± 233.3 ng/ml; p<0.001 [set 2]; 283.6 ± 103.9 vs. 238.0 ± 254.7 ng/ml; p = 0.006 [set 3]; 291.0 ± 94.9 vs. 266.0 ± 274.7 ng/ml; p = 0.016 [set 4]).

Conclusion

The power injectable PICC is a feasible venous access device for allo-HSCT.

Relevance to clinical practice

The dual-lumen power injectable PICCs provided a reliable access for blood sample collection, decreasing the number of blind percutaneous venous punctures in allo-HSCT. However, its application in cyclosporine level monitoring needs further investigation.

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