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Diabetes Distress, Depressive Symptoms, and Cardiovascular Health in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

imageBackground The prevalence of adults with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing, and their risk of cardiovascular disease is high. Comorbid diabetes distress and depressive symptoms may affect their cardiovascular health. Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between diabetes distress and depressive symptoms with cardiovascular health factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of adults with T1D. Valid and reliable instruments were used to collect the data on sociodemographics, diabetes-related complications, psychological factors, and cardiovascular health factors. Independent-sample t tests, analysis of variance, chi-square analyses, and linear regression were used to compare the cardiovascular health factors among the three levels of diabetes distress scores and the two levels of depressive symptom scores. Results Our sample included 83 adults with a mean age of 45.2 years and a mean duration of T1D of 20 years. The majority scored low in the Diabetes Distress Scale, whereas 18% scored moderate and 18% scored high. Twenty-two percent had increased levels of depressive symptoms. There were significant correlations between diabetes distress and fear of hypoglycemia, depressive symptom scores, hemoglobin A1c, and total cholesterol. Depressive symptom scores were significantly correlated with hemoglobin A1c. Hemoglobin A1c and total cholesterol were significantly higher in those with higher levels of diabetes distress. There were no significant differences in cardiovascular health between those who scored below or above the cut point for depressive symptoms, but there was a finding toward higher mean body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, and a lower weekly step count in those who had elevated depressive symptoms. In the linear regression, only diabetes distress was significantly associated with hemoglobin A1c. Discussion This is a sample with elevated diabetes distress and depressive symptoms, both of which may affect their risk of cardiovascular disease.

Validation of the Presence of Nursing Scale Using Data Triangulation

Background Nursing presence has been developed as a distinct concept with identifiable behaviors but remains only partially defined as a quantifiable construct. Objectives This study asked if the Presence of Nursing Scale (PONS) is a reliable and valid instrument to measure nursing presence from the patient’s perspective. Methods A convenience sample of 75 adult acute care inpatients were verbally administered the 25-item PONS considering the registered nurse taking care of them on the day of data collection. Open-ended questions elicited the patients’ explanations of their ratings. They also rated their overall satisfaction with the nursing care provided by the subject nurse using a 5-point scale. Results The mean PONS score was 104.5 (SD = 17.26) on the 25–125 scale. Instrument reliability reported as a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .95 was .94 in this study. Instrument validity was tested correlating PONS scores to the satisfaction rating. The Spearman’s rho correlation was large and statistically significant, r (73) = .708. The higher the PONS score, the more satisfied the patient was with care from that nurse. Nineteen narratives selected from the lower quartile PONS scores (PONS 116) were thematically analyzed. Lower PONS scores corresponded with themes of patients being objectified as the work of the nurse without a respectful and caring nurse–patient relationship. Higher PONS scores coincided with patients’ perceptions of enhanced nurse–patient rapport, feelings of better coping, and decreased anxiety. Discussion These results demonstrate reliability and validity of the PONS and add to the body of evidence about nurse behaviors exhibited in the nurse–patient relationship, which influence patients’ feelings of being cared for and satisfied with nursing care. These findings may be useful in the development of educational materials aimed at the advancement of nursing presence competency.

Integrative Review of Recruitment of Research Participants Through Facebook

imageBackground Facebook (FB) has been widely used recently to recruit participants for adult health research. However, little is known about its effectiveness, cost, and the characteristics of participants recruited via FB when compared to other recruitment methods. Objectives The purpose of this integrative review was to examine the published evidence concerning the use of FB in participant recruitment for adult health research, as compared to other social media, online, and traditional recruitment methods. Methods In this integrative review, we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Web of Science were the electronic databases used to identify the published articles. In regard to language, the search was limited. Results The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of using FB for recruitment in healthcare research as compared to more traditional forms of recruitment remain unclear. Reporting of recruitment strategies is inconsistent, and costs are often not included. FB is being used for recruitment frequently with other methods and, although often effective, can be costly. Discussion FB is used to recruit participants for a variety of studies, with researchers using both free and paid ads to reach potential participants. Reporting of recruitment methods needs to be more rigorous, streamlined, and standardized in scientific papers.

Health Literacy Risk in Older Adults With and Without Mild Cognitive Impairment

imageBackground The relationship between an increasing elderly population and wide-ranging neurological conditions has led to heightened rates of cognitive function impairment. Some researchers have found that health literacy risk may be associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. Objectives The purpose of this study was to delineate the difference in health literacy risk between older adults with mild cognitive impairment and those with normal cognitive function. Methods We conducted a survey study to explore the health literacy risk in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment. Data were collected from 412 subjects between 60 and 91 years of age (260 without and 152 with mild cognitive impairment) between June and December 2016 in China. Cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental Status Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Global Deterioration Scale, Activities of Daily Living, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Health literacy was measured using the Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire. Results The scores of total health literacy and its three dimensions (basic health knowledge and mind, basic skills, and health lifestyle and behavior) were lower in those with mild cognitive impairment. Older adults with normal cognitive function had adequate or marginal health literacy levels, whereas those with mild cognitive impairment had marginal or inadequate health literacy levels. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that health literacy risk, education level, age, marital status, and body mass index were independent risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. Discussion These results suggest that low health literacy may be a predictor of mild cognitive impairment. Screening for lower health literacy risk should be included in multidimensional geriatric evaluation.

Stress and Health in Nursing Students: The Nurse Engagement and Wellness Study

imageBackground Evidence suggests that behavioral, social, and environmental factors may modify the effects of life stress on health and performance of new nurses as they transition to hospitals. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the methods of a project designed to investigate the role of social, behavioral, and environmental factors in modifying the adverse effects of stress on new nurses and to discuss demographic, health, and life stress characteristics of the cohort at baseline. Methods A prospective cohort design was used to conduct a comprehensive assessment of health endpoints, life stress, behaviors, personal traits, social factors, indicators of engagement and performance, and environmental exposures in nursing students. Adjusted odds ratios and analyses of covariance were used to examine associations between these factors at baseline. Results Health indicators in the cohort were comparable or better than in the broader United States population, and lifetime stress exposure was lower than among students from other majors. Exposure to more lifetime stressors was associated with greater risk for various health conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and depression. Conversely, better social, environmental, behavioral, and personal profiles were associated with protective effects for the same health conditions. Discussion These data comprehensively summarize the lives of predominately Hispanic nursing students and highlight risk and resilience factors associated with their health and well-being. The findings are timely, as the nursing field diversifies in preparation to care for a diverse and aging population. Comprehensively assessing stress–health relationships among student nurses ought to inform the policies, practices, and curricula of nursing schools to better prepare nurses to thrive in the often-strenuous healthcare environment.

Mediterranean Diet, Body Composition, and Activity Associated With Bone Health in Women With Fibromyalgia Syndrome

imageBackground There is very little scientific literature on the potential relationships between modifiable factors, including body composition, dietary pattern and physical activity (PA), and bone status in patients with fibromyalgia—a musculoskeletal condition characterized by chronic, widespread pain that is often accompanied by a broad spectrum of symptoms. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of body composition parameters, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med Diet), and PA on bone health in a population of premenopausal and postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods Ninety-five women diagnosed with FMS were included in this cross-sectional study. Body composition, including fat mass, percentage of fat mass, and lean mass (LM), were calculated using a body composition analyzer. Adherence to the Med Diet was measured through a validated 14-item questionnaire. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA. Bone mass at the calcaneus was estimated through quantitative ultrasound. Results Linear regression analysis revealed that LM had a significant association with broadband ultrasound attenuation (β = 0.211, 95% CI [0.046, 1.259], p = .035) and stiffness index parameters (β = 0.201, 95% CI [0.019, 1.654], p = .045) after adjusting for age and menopausal status. The Med Diet was also significantly associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (β = 1.693, 95% CI [0.508, 2.879], p = .006). Discussion LM and the Med Diet were consistently associated with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound parameters, supporting the hypothesis that LM and adherence to the Med Diet play determinant roles in bone health in FMS women. Training programs to maximize LM and strategies for promoting good adherence to the Med Diet should be considered in order to prevent the development of osteoporosis in FMS women. Because nurses are involved in implementing preventive programs, their roles in promoting this adherence to the Med Diet and maximizing LM in patients with FMS should help reduce the impact of osteoporosis.

Symptom Experience of Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Distress

imageBackground An older, more diverse population and longer life spans are major contributors to the anticipated tripling of Type 2 diabetes prevalence by 2050. Diabetes-related distress affects up to 40% of people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and may be a greater risk for older adults due to greater prevalence of comorbidities. Objective The objective of this phenomenological study was to describe how diabetes-related distress in older adults (≥65 years) with Type 2 diabetes might be uniquely experienced. Methods Participants were recruited using convenience sampling and snowball sampling. Interpretive phenomenology guided the research design and analysis. With interpretive interviews, we investigated the everyday health, symptoms, and life experiences of living with Type 2 diabetes and elevated diabetes distress. Results Among the older adults in this study, the most prevalent symptoms were fatigue, hypoglycemia, diarrhea, pain, loss of balance, and falling. These diabetes-related symptoms led to substantial loss of independence, decreased quality of life, and constrained social lives due to restricted activities. Discussion Diabetes-related distress presents with some unique symptoms and responses in older adults. Improving knowledge regarding the symptom experience of older adults with diabetes-related distress may allow healthcare providers to tailor treatment and thus improve outcomes for older adults struggling with diabetes.

Development of a Care Delivery Model for High-Need Older Adults in the Community

imageBackground High-need older adults have multiple needs and require different types of care services. Care coordinators in community care centers in Taiwan, however, often experience difficulties in providing sufficient care services because of the inadequate capacity of case management. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a realistic care delivery model for the care coordinators to manage the care of high-need, community-dwelling older adults. Methods Focus-group interviews concerning elements and process for establishing a care delivery model were conducted with 12 care management experts in two groups: the practical work group (three registered nurses and three social workers) and the care management group (three care managers and three care management supervisors). The interviews were video-recorded and subjected to content analysis. Results A five-stage care delivery model was formulated: case screening, case assessment, care plan, care delivery, and follow-up evaluation. Six types of high-need older adults were identified: those living with disability, solitude, dementia, depression, elder abuse, and poverty. A list of categorized care services, including care resources, social welfare resources, and caregiver resources, was then used as a guide for case management and care delivery. Discussion The developed model—consisting a classification of services for different types of high-need older adults—serves as a guide for care coordinators in community care centers to make better decisions on service linkages, resource management, and care plan monitoring.

Adherence to Home-Based Rehabilitation in Older Adults With Diabetes After Hip Fracture

imageBackground Adherence to rehabilitation is beneficial to patients with hip fracture. However, the relationships between different levels of adherence and postoperative recovery among older adults after hip fracture have not been addressed thoroughly in the literature. Objectives The aims of this study were to explore the trajectories of adherence to home-based rehabilitation during the 12-month period after hospital discharge and to examine the effects of adhering to prescribed home-based rehabilitation on postoperative recovery of physical functions. Methods We employed a secondary data analysis, and 88 hip-fractured older adults with diabetes were recruited. The Chinese Barthel Index was used to measure daily physical functions, a goniometer was used to measure range of motion, and the MicroFET2 dynamometer was used to measure muscle power. Adherence was measured as the rate of adherence to the suggested frequency of home-based rehabilitation activities. Results Adherence to home-based rehabilitation decreased over time. The high-adherence group was more likely to recover prefracture physical functions than was the low-adherence group, and the high-adherence group had better self-care abilities, greater range of motion for ankle extension, and higher muscular strength on both adduction and abduction than did the low-adherence group. Discussion The results of our study suggest that patients adhere to more than 50% of prescribed rehabilitation. Future studies should continue to explore interventions to enhance rehabilitation adherence after hospital discharge.

Demographics, Psychological Distress, and Pain From Pressure Injury

imageBackground There is a knowledge gap regarding factors that influence the intensity of pain associated with pressure injuries. Objectives We examined the influence of age, gender, race, and comorbidity on the relationships between pressure injuries, psychological distress, and pain intensity in hospitalized adults. Methods This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective secondary analysis using data from a regional acute hospital’s electronic health records from 2013 to 2016. A sample of 454 cases met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed using path analysis. Results The hypothesized model (Model A) and two alternative models (Models B and C) were tested and demonstrated adequate model fit. All tested models demonstrated statistically significant independent direct effects of age on the severity of pressure injury (p

Development of a Bidimensional Simpatía Scale for Use With Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American Adults

imageBackground Through its influence on social interactions, simpatía may have a wide-ranging influence on Latinx health. Simpatía—which does not have a direct English translation—refers to being perceived as likeable, pleasant, and easygoing. Research to investigate the influence simpatía on Latinx health is limited, likely due to a lack of options for measuring simpatía among diverse Latinx populations. Objectives The goal of this research was to develop a bilingual, survey-based simpatía scale for use among ethnically diverse Latinx adults in health-related settings. Methods Data were obtained through a telephone survey data of 1,296 Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults living in the United States. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. Exploratory factor analysis, item response theory analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and computation of estimates of internal consistency reliability were conducted to inform the development of the final simpatía scale. Results Results indicate that the final, nine-item, simpatía scale has high internal consistency (α = .83) and measurement invariance among Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults. Two dimensions were identified, as indicated by a perceptions subscale and a behavior subscale. Cuban Americans were found to have the highest simpatía scores, followed by Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Discussion Culture is often identified as a powerful potential influence on health-related behaviors, but measures are often not available to assess specific cultural traits. By developing a new tool for measuring simpatía, this research advances opportunities for understanding and promoting Latinx health.

Relationship of Pain Quality Descriptors and Quantitative Sensory Testing: Sickle Cell Disease

imageBackground Chronic pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) may be the result of altered processing in the central nervous system, as indicated by quantitative sensory testing (QST). Sensory pain quality descriptors on the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) are indicators of typical or altered pain mechanisms but have not been validated with QST-derived classifications. Objectives The specific aim of this study was to identify the sensory pain quality descriptors that are associated with the QST-derived normal or sensitized classifications. We expected to find that sets of sensory pain quality descriptors would discriminate the classifications. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study of existing data from 186 adults of African ancestry with SCD. Variables included MPQ descriptors, patient demographic data, and QST-derived classifications. Results The participants were classified as central sensitization (n = 33), mixed sensitization (n = 23), and normal sensation. Sensory pain quality descriptors that differed statistically between mixed sensitization and central sensation compared to normal sensitization included cold (p = .01) and spreading (p = .01). Aching (p = .01) and throbbing (p = .01) differed statistically between central sensitization compared with mixed sensitization and normal sensation. Beating (p = .01) differed statistically between mixed sensitization compared with central sensitization and normal sensation. No set of sensory pain quality descriptors differed statistically between QST classifications. Discussion Our study is the first to examine the association between MPQ sensory pain quality descriptors and QST-derived classifications in adults with SCD. Our findings provide the basis for the development of a MPQ subscale with potential as a mechanism-based screening tool for neuropathic pain.

Poverty, Toxic Stress, and Education in Children Born Preterm

imageBackground Preterm birth, defined as birth before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation, is a multifactorial global epidemic with psychosocial, economic, and physical ramifications affecting the child, family, and community at large. Toxic stress—the results of exposure to adverse childhood experiences—results in changes to brain structure and function that negatively affects future health. Objectives The aim of this study was to apply the eco-bio-developmental (EBD) model of poverty and preterm birth to the cross-sectional data of the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health to evaluate the associations between poverty, toxic stress, and prematurity on neurodevelopmental and educational outcomes. Methods A subset of data representing children ages 6–11 years old (n = 15,010) from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health was used for multivariate analysis of demographic variables and neurodevelopmental and educational outcome variables. Pearson’s chi-square, logistic regression, and interaction effects explored the relationships between prematurity, toxic stress, and poverty. Results Children in this sample born preterm had a higher incidence of toxic stress, poverty, developmental delay, learning disability, intellectual disability, speech/language disorders, attention-deficit disorder (ADD)/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and special education/early intervention plans. The combination of poverty, toxic stress, and preterm birth significantly increased the risk of these conditions. After accounting for gender, insurance coverage, race, and parental education, children in the sample born preterm were more likely to experience developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech/language disorder, learning disability, and ADD/ADHD. Toxic stress increased the incidence of ADD/ADHD and autism in both the preterm and full-term samples. Discussion The negative effect of poverty and toxic stress on children born preterm, as depicted by the eco-bio-developmental model, is supported by this analysis. Healthcare providers are encouraged to address the tripartite vulnerability resulting from prematurity, poverty, and toxic stress.

Mediators of Physical Activity Behavior Change in the “Girls on the Move” Intervention

imageBackground The minimal effect of interventions to date on increasing young adolescent girls’ physical activity (PA) may be due to inadequate understanding of the mechanisms underlying behavior change, yet sparse research testing a PA intervention has examined the capacity of theories to explain PA, particularly when using objective measures. Objectives The aim of the study was to examine whether constructs from the health promotion model and self-determination theory mediated changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) following a 17-week intervention. Methods The study was a secondary analysis of data from a group randomized trial, including 12 intervention and 12 control schools in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected in 2012–2016. Girls (fifth- to eighth-grade, N = 1,519) completed surveys on perceived benefits and enjoyment of PA, PA self-efficacy, social support and motivation for PA, and barriers to PA and wore accelerometers. Results The final path model had a good fit: χ2(4) = 2.48, p = .648; goodness-of-fit index = 1; comparative fit index = 1; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0; standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.01. For MVPA change from baseline to postintervention, enjoyment (B = 24.48, p

Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Military Nursing Officers

imageBackground Nurses working in military trauma teams often work in hostile and remote locations. They are faced with the burden of carrying out their duties while ensuring the safety of their patients and themselves in areas of conflict and humanitarian crisis. The stories and experiences of military nurses often go untold. In a phenomenological study, six Australian Defence Force Nursing Officers share their stories of working as members of military trauma teams. Objectives The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of nursing officers when working as a member of a military trauma team. Methods A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to conduct this research. In-depth interviews were conducted with six participants. Results The following themes were identified: telling their stories; the role—who we are and what we do; the environment—it is so different; training—will it ever fully prepare you; working in teams—there’s no “I” in team; and leadership—will the real leader please stand up! Discussion This study has provided an insight into the experiences of six Australian military nurses working in trauma teams—experiences that were rarely given voice outside the military. Central to this experience is the need to have these stories told.

Relationships Among Parental Psychological Distress, Parental Feeding Practices, Child Diet, and Child Body Mass Index

imageBackground Parents often play a main role in establishing the dietary patterns of preschool children, but there is no clear understanding about the relationship between parental psychological distress and child diet and body mass index (BMI). Objective The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among parental psychological distress, parental feeding practices, child diet, and child BMI in families with young children. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods study with families (parent–child dyad) of children aged 2–5 years. Measures included demographic data, parental general stress, parenting stress, parental sleep quality, parental depressive symptoms, social support for parents, mealtime environment, child feeding practice, child diet, and child BMI, with well-validated questionnaires completed by parents. Using structural equation models, we examined the path relationships of these factors. We also interviewed a subsample of 13 parents. Results A total of 256 families participated. Higher parental psychological distress was associated with higher parental unhealthy feeding practices (B = 0.31, p

Self-Management Through Social Support Among Emerging Adults With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

imageBackground Emerging adulthood is a unique developmental stage, which may affect individuals’ self-management behaviors, social support, and the relationship between these two constructs. Among older adults, social support has been shown to improve self-management behaviors for individuals with chronic conditions; however, this relationship has not been examined with emerging adults (age 18–29 years) who have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Objectives The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between two conceptualizations of social support (received and perceived availability of social support) and IBD-related self-management behaviors among emerging adults with IBD. Methods A convenience sample of emerging adult IBD individuals (currently prescribed medication to manage IBD) were recruited through ResearchMatch, Facebook, and word of mouth. The study was guided by key elements of the individual and family self-management theory. Participants responded to demographic and condition-specific questionnaires: the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood, the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors, the Medical Outcomes: Social Support Survey, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Results Emerging adults with high received informational support reported greater medication adherence compared to those with low received informational support when controlling for biological medications, time since diagnosis, symptom frequency, and feeling in-between adolescence and adulthood. Neither type of social support was associated with diet modification. Discussion Received informational social support, medication type, time since diagnosis, symptoms, and emerging adulthood factors have the potential to influence medication adherence. Received informational social support interventions, such as patient-to-patient or group-based mentoring, may serve to improve medication adherence among emerging adults with IBD.

Comparison of Measures to Predict Mortality and Length of Stay in Hospitalized Patients

imageBackground Patient risk adjustment is critical for hospital benchmarking and allocation of healthcare resources. However, considerable heterogeneity exists among measures. Objectives The performance of five measures was compared to predict mortality and length of stay (LOS) in hospitalized adults using claims data; these include three comorbidity composite scores (Charlson/Deyo age-comorbidity score, V W Elixhauser comorbidity score, and V W Elixhauser age-comorbidity score), 3 M risk of mortality (3 M ROM), and 3 M severity of illness (3 M SOI) subclasses. Methods Binary logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial regression models were applied to a 2-year retrospective dataset (2013–2014) with 123,641 adult inpatient admissions from a large hospital system in New York City. Results All five measures demonstrated good to strong model fit for predicting in-hospital mortality, with C-statistics of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.74, 0.75]), 0.80 (95% CI [0.80, 0.81]), 0.81(95% CI [0.81, 0.82]), 0.94 (95% CI [0.93, 0.94]), and 0.90 (95% CI [0.90, 0.91]) for Charlson/Deyo age-comorbidity score, V W Elixhauser comorbidity score, V W Elixhauser age-comorbidity score, 3 M ROM, and 3 M SOI, respectively. The model fit statistics to predict hospital LOS measured by the likelihood ratio index were 0.3%, 1.2%, 1.1%, 6.2%, and 4.3%, respectively. Discussion The measures tested in this study can guide nurse managers in the assignment of nursing care and coordination of needed patient services and administrators to effectively and efficiently support optimal nursing care.

The Association Between Health Literacy and Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors: Findings From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

imageBackground Health literacy has been linked to breast and cervical cancer screening, with inconsistent findings, which may result from the use of nonprobability sampling and a health literacy instrument that measures a subset of health literacy. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between health literacy and breast and cervical cancer screening using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that uses a nationally representative U.S. probability sample. Methods This cross-sectional, correlational study used national-level data from the 2016 BRFSS for women eligible for breast (N = 44,241) and cervical (N = 38,956) cancer screening per the American Cancer Society guidelines. A health literacy survey consisted of three items: oral (asking for medical advice), listening (understanding information that providers offer), and written (understanding printed health information) literacy. We extracted data regarding age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, education, employment, insurance, and access to providers. Analyses were weighted using the complex survey design and multiple logistic regressions were used to test for the associations between health literacy and cancer screening after controlling for sociodemographic and healthcare system factors. Results Oral and listening literacies were contributing factors to up-to-date breast cancer screening (p = .002, p

Lifetime Physical Activity and White Matter Hyperintensities in Cognitively Intact Adults

imageBackground White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) observed on magnetic resonance images are associated with depression and increase the risk of stroke, dementia, and death. The association between physical activity and WMHs has been inconsistently reported in the literature, perhaps because studies did not account for a lifetime of physical activity or depression. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which a lifetime of leisure-time physical activity is associated with less WMHs while accounting for depression. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire, where the metabolic equivalent of task hours per week per year was calculated. Cognitively intact participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging, where WMHs as a percentage of intracranial volume was obtained. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was performed to compare WMHs in a more active group with a group with no psychiatric history (n = 20, mean age = 62.2 years), with a less active group with no psychiatric history (n = 13, mean age = 64.0 years), and a less active group with history of late-onset depression (n = 14, mean age = 62.8 years). Results There was not a statistically significant difference in WMHlg10 between the more and less active groups without a psychiatric history (b = .09, p > .05) or between the more active group without a psychiatric history and the less active group with a history of depression (b = .01, p > .05). The model was predictive of WMHlg10, explaining an adjusted 15% of the variance in WMHs (p = .041). Discussion A lifetime of leisure-time physical activity was not associated with WMHs when accounting for depression.