Healthcare providers are concerned about adherence to provider recommendations in coronary artery disease management. Seeking patient-related factors influencing changes in adherence over time is necessary for formulating suitable intervention measures—especially among diverse populations.
To explore whether health literacy, self-efficacy, and disease knowledge predict changes in adherence over time (between baseline and 3 months) to secondary prevention recommendations for Chinese coronary artery disease patients.
A longitudinal study was performed for 662 patients following percutaneous coronary intervention in China. Self-reported data were collected at baseline during hospitalization and at a 3-month telephone follow-up. Variables included demographics, health literacy, self-efficacy, disease knowledge, and adherence to secondary prevention recommendations for medication taking and a heart-healthy lifestyle. Multinomial logistic regression identified predictors of adherence changes over time.
Patients were categorized into three groups: sustained/declined to nonadherence between baseline and 3 months, improved to adherence, and sustained adherence. The number of patients in sustained/declined to nonadherence group was small. Absence of stents predicted sustained/declined to nonadherence to medication and lifestyle over time. Health literacy was not associated with adherence changes over time. Higher self-efficacy scores were associated with lower likelihood of sustained/declined to nonadherence to a healthy lifestyle over time, whereas higher disease knowledge scores were associated with higher sustained/declined to nonadherence to medication.
Adherence to secondary prevention 3 months after discharge was relatively good in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease who received percutaneous coronary intervention. Absence of stents and lower self-efficacy can predict the poor adherence changes, which should be considered in formulating follow-up care.