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Prediction of Changes in Adherence to Secondary Prevention Among Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

imageBackground Healthcare providers are concerned about adherence to provider recommendations in coronary artery disease management. Seeking patient-related factors influencing changes in adherence over time is necessary for formulating suitable intervention measures—especially among diverse populations. Objective To explore whether health literacy, self-efficacy, and disease knowledge predict changes in adherence over time (between baseline and 3 months) to secondary prevention recommendations for Chinese coronary artery disease patients. Methods A longitudinal study was performed for 662 patients following percutaneous coronary intervention in China. Self-reported data were collected at baseline during hospitalization and at a 3-month telephone follow-up. Variables included demographics, health literacy, self-efficacy, disease knowledge, and adherence to secondary prevention recommendations for medication taking and a heart-healthy lifestyle. Multinomial logistic regression identified predictors of adherence changes over time. Results Patients were categorized into three groups: sustained/declined to nonadherence between baseline and 3 months, improved to adherence, and sustained adherence. The number of patients in sustained/declined to nonadherence group was small. Absence of stents predicted sustained/declined to nonadherence to medication and lifestyle over time. Health literacy was not associated with adherence changes over time. Higher self-efficacy scores were associated with lower likelihood of sustained/declined to nonadherence to a healthy lifestyle over time, whereas higher disease knowledge scores were associated with higher sustained/declined to nonadherence to medication. Conclusions Adherence to secondary prevention 3 months after discharge was relatively good in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease who received percutaneous coronary intervention. Absence of stents and lower self-efficacy can predict the poor adherence changes, which should be considered in formulating follow-up care.