Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) constitutes 15% of new adult leukaemia cases as well as 2%–3% of leukaemia in children under 15% and 9% of leukaemias in adolescents 15–19 years of age annually. The introduction of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) therapy has dramatically improved survival in these patients, yet the off-target effects of this treatment may have long-term health impacts on CML survivors. The risk of adverse health outcomes is especially important in children, where TKI exposure may occur during critical windows of growth and puberty, and patients require treatment for prolonged periods of time. The aim of this systematic review protocol is to report on the methods used to conduct a systematic review to investigate the endometabolic and bone health effects of TKI therapy in CML.
Searches will be conducted in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and MEDLINE from inception on August 1st, 2019. Searches may be updated while performing the systematic review to ensure new evidence is included if applicable. Grey literature search will include ClinicalTrials.gov and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses A&I. We will perform a meta-analysis if there are at least two studies reporting similar populations, interventions, methods and tracking the same outcome measures. The studies should also have similar age and sex distributions.
As this is a systematic review protocol, it does not include patient data; therefore, Research Ethics Board approval is not indicated. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences.
To explore medical students’ views on and experiences of responding to out-of-hospital medical emergencies.
University College London (UCL).
11 UCL Medical School students.
We carried out 11 one-to-one semistructured interviews, with participant validation and reflective work. The data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Three core themes were identified. (1) ‘We Did Debate a Bit: Should We Go? Should We Not?’—Students’ decisions to respond were based on the appearance of the casualty; the presence and actions of bystanders; witnessing the incident; self-perceived competence, confidence and knowledge; and personal experiences and feelings associated with medical emergencies. (2) ‘It Would Represent the Medical Profession Well if We Did Step In and Help’—Students felt that they had an ethical and/or professional duty to help. (3) ‘No One Should Die Because of a Lack of... Basic Life-Saving Techniques’—Students felt that medical school training alone had not sufficiently prepared them to respond to out-of-hospital medical emergencies. Improvements to training were suggested: integrating first aid/response training into the horizontal (systems-based) modules; teaching both common and less common medical emergencies and presentations; training that is led by experienced first responders and that increases students’ exposure to out-of-hospital medical emergencies; and providing more revision training sessions.
Students felt that medical school training could be improved to better prepare them for responding to out-of-hospital medical emergencies, and wanted clarification on whether or not they have an ethical and/or professional duty to help. Further mixed-methods research using a larger sample needs to be carried out to confirm whether findings are transferable to other UK medical schools.
Joint arthroplasty is a particularly complex orthopaedic surgical procedure performed on joints, including the hip, knee, shoulder, ankle, elbow, wrist and even digit joints. Increasing evidence from volume–outcomes research supports the finding that patients undergoing joint arthroplasty in high-volume hospitals or by high-volume surgeons achieve better outcomes, and minimum case load requirements have been established in some areas. However, the relationships between hospital/surgeon volume and outcomes in patients undergoing arthroplasty are not fully understood. Furthermore, whether elective arthroplasty should be restricted to high-volume hospitals or surgeons remains in dispute, and little is known regarding where the thresholds should be set for different types of joint arthroplasties.
This is a protocol for a suite of systematic reviews and dose–response meta-analyses, which will be amended and updated in conjunction with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. Electronic databases, including PubMed and Embase, will be searched for observational studies examining the relationship between the hospital or surgeon volume and clinical outcomes in adult patients undergoing primary or revision of joint arthroplasty. We will use records management software for study selection and a predefined standardised file for data extraction and management. Quality will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and the meta-analysis, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis will be performed using Stata statistical software. Once the volume–outcome relationships are established, we will examine the potential non-linear relationships between hospital/surgeon volume and outcomes and detect whether thresholds or turning points exist.
Ethical approval is not required, because these studies are based on aggregated published data. The results of this suite of systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication.
Exposure to asbestos is the major cause for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but the causal link of individual cases is difficult to establish for lack of exposure information and long disease latency.
We established a retrospective cohort of workers employed in asbestos industries during the period of 1950–1989 and the occurrence of MPM during the period of 1980–2009 was examined with the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Estimated rate ratios (eRRs) were computed for each factory where any case of MPM was diagnosed by assuming Poisson distribution with a minimal latency of 20 years.
A total of 18 MPM (17 males, 1 female) in eight factories were found. The incidence rate of MPM for the eight factories was 18.0 per million, ranging from 6.2 per million (military factory) to 268.2 per million (asbestos cement). We observed significantly increased risks for MPM in asbestos cement, thermal insulation and shipbuilding industries, with eRR (genders combined) of 113.6, 87.5 and 15.8, respectively. The sensitivity analyses considering latency showed similar findings in latency ≥30 years, and the shipbuilding industry presented a significant eRR given a latency ≥40 years. The gender-specific eRR showed similar results in men, but high eRR of 729.6 was observed in an asbestos cement factory where a female MPM was diagnosed.
This nationwide study in Taiwan comprehensively shows that different asbestos manufacturing processes, including asbestos cement, thermal insulation and shipbuilding industries, were at significantly increased risks for MPM. We recommend to establish a medical screening programme for workers previously exposed to asbestos to identify MPM and other asbestos-related diseases at an earlier stage.
With the increased population mobility and the transition in population policy, scholars are quite concerned about family planning/sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and related factors among internal migrant population of reproductive age. Therefore, the proposed study was designed to explore the association between factors related to family planning/SRH and contraceptive use as well as consistent condom use among the above-described population in China.
Three municipalities in China, namely Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing.
Among the 6545 participants, 2099, 2414 and 2031 subjects came from Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing, respectively.
A total of 6545 eligible participants were included as the full sample, 6188 of whom who had intercourse in the last 3 months were selected as the subsample. Among the subsample, 80.88% (5005/6188) adopted any form of contraceptive methods and 49.14% (3041/6188) consistently used condom in the last three sexual intercourses. Meanwhile, the involved participants had a better mastery of knowledge on SRH than on contraception (p
In the current study, we revealed a high-level contraceptive prevalence, a relatively low-level consistent condom use and a poor mastery of knowledge on contraception and SRH. The Heckprobit selection model specified the existence of selection bias, providing evidence on the association between the factors on family planning/SRH and contraceptive use as well as consistent condom use, respectively. Our findings indicated that health institutions should offer appropriate technology and high-quality family planning/SRH services for the internal migrant population in China.
To investigate a possible association between normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Retrospective cohort study.
NTG group and the comparison group were retrieved from the whole population of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2013.
A total of 15 317 subjects with NTG were enrolled in the NTG group, and 61 268 age-matched and gender-matched subjects without glaucoma were enrolled in the comparison group.
Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to compare the cumulative hazard of AD between the two groups. A multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of AD, adjusted for diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, coronary artery disease and stroke. Furthermore, risk factors for developing AD among the NTG group were investigated.
The mean age of the cohort was 62.1±12.5 years. Patients with NTG had significantly higher proportions of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, coronary artery disease and stroke than the comparisons. Patients with NTG had a significantly higher cumulative hazard for AD than the comparisons (p
People with NTG are at a significantly greater risk of developing AD compared with individuals without glaucoma. Among patients with NTG, none of the glaucoma eye drops used significantly changed the risk of subsequent AD.