Objetivo principal: conocer los motivos que llevan a las mujeres a optar por el parto domiciliário planificado. Metodología: estudio descrip-tivo, exploratorio, con un enfoque cualitativo. Participaron en la investigaciõn nueve mujeres que han optado por tener su parto en casa. Recolección de datos se produjo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, realizadas individualmente. Se utilizó la técnica de análisis de contenido de tipo temático. Resultados principales: del análisis emergieron los temas: Motivos que llevaron al parto domiciliário; Percep-ción de las mujeres sobre el parto domiciliário; Conductas de los profesionales de la salud en el parto domiciliário; y El enfermero frente a la asistencia al parto domiciliário. Conclusión principal: Las mujeres que optan por el parto domiciliario buscan una atención más humana sobre el parto, evitando una serie de intervenciones innecesarias, comunes en los hospitales.
Although obesity appears to be an important predictor of mortality and morbidity, little data about the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of severely burned patients are available. Patients admitted to the General Hospital Vienna between 1994 and 2014, who underwent surgery because of burn injuries, were enrolled in this study. BMI was used to divide patients into five groups: BMI 18.5 to 24.9, 25 to 29.9, 30 to 34.9, 35 to 39.9, and > 40. The groups were compared in terms of difference of mortality and morbidity. Of 460 patients, 34.3% (n = 158) died. Mortality rates were the lowest in patients with obesity class III and the highest in patients with BMI 35 to 39.9 (BMI 18.5‐24.9: 30.5%, BMI 25‐29.9: 31.5%, BMI 30‐34.9: 41.3%, BMI 35‐39.9: 55.5%, BMI > 40: 30%; P = .031). BMI was not found to be an independent risk factor when corrected with age, percent total body surface area burned, full‐thickness burns, and inhalation injury. No significant differences in length of stay, inhalation trauma, pneumonia, wound infection, sepsis, and invasive ventilation were observed. BMI as an independent risk factor for severely burned patients could not be confirmed via multivariate analysis.
Scar formation is usually the pathological consequence of skin trauma. And hypertrophic scars (HSs) frequently occur in people after being injured deeply. HSs are unusually considered as the result of tissue contraction and excessive extracellular matrix component deposition. Myofibroblasts, as the effector cells, mainly differentiated from fibroblasts, play the crucial role in the pathophysiology of HSs. A number of growth factors, inflammatory cytokines involved in the process of HS occurrence. Currently, with in‐depth exploration and clinical research of HSs, various creative and effective treatments budded. In here, we summarize the progress in the molecular mechanism of HSs, and review the available biotherapeutic methods for their pathophysiological characteristics. Additionally, we further prospected that the comprehensive therapy may be more suitable for HS treatment.
Human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells were irradiated with different energy lasers to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of microRNA‐206 and protein, and to further summarise the therapeutic effect of laser on scar cells. Human scar cell line HSF cells were cultured in three groups. The control group was not irradiated by laser, the low‐energy group was irradiated by 10 J/cm2 laser, and the high‐energy group was irradiated by 20 J/cm2 laser. After irradiation, HSF cells were cultured for 20 hours. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Transwell migration assay was used to detect cell migratory ability. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) was used to detect miR‐206 and mTOR gene levels. The levels of MMP‐9, Bax, Bcl‐2, cyclin D1, and mTOR signalling pathway proteins were detected by Western blotting assays. The results showed that after laser irradiation, the proliferation of cells decreased, and the difference between the control group and the experimental group was significant (P < .05). The higher the energy was, the greater the upregulation of apoptosis was. Apoptosis and cell migration increased (P < .05). The expressions of microRNA‐206, MMP‐9, and Bax were upregulated, while the expressions of mTOR, Bcl‐2, and cyclin D1 were downregulated. To sum up, laser irradiation can significantly inhibit the proliferation of HSF cells, affect cell cycle, and increase cell apoptosis and migratory ability.
Commentary on: Derry S, Bell RF, Straube S, et al. Pregabalin for neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019:CD007076. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007076.pub3.
There is moderate quality evidence that pregabalin is more effective than placebo for postherpetic neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy and post-traumatic neuropathic pain. There is no evidence to support its use in HIV neuropathy nor central neuropathic pain. Future studies require greater sample sizes and clearer methodology. There is a need to identify patients who would benefit from pregabalin therapy.
There is moderate quality evidence that pregabalin is more effective than placebo for postherpetic neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy and post-traumatic neuropathic pain.
There is no evidence to support its use in HIV neuropathy nor central neuropathic pain.
Future studies require greater sample sizes and clearer methodology.
There is a need to identify patients who would benefit from pregabalin therapy.
Pregabalin is licensed to treat neuropathic pain which is defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system.
Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a fatal complication after median sternotomy. This study was to assess the effect of vacuum‐assisted closure (VAC) combined with bi‐pectoral muscle advancement flap therapy on rehabilitation for the treatment of DSWI. Fifty‐two patients with DSWI underwent treatment of VAC and bi‐pectoral muscle flap. These patients were followed‐up 12 months postoperation. The patient characteristics, duration of VAC therapy, the mean hospital stay, and postoperative complications were retrospectively analysed. All patients underwent 1 to 3 VAC treatment sessions before closure. Fifty‐one of 52 DSWI patients were cured to discharge; the mean hospital stay was 26.5 days. The drainage tube continued to drain a large amount of bloody fluid in three patients after the wound was closed. Respiratory failure occurred in one patient with severe mediastinal and pulmonary infections and died eventually in hospital. One patient died of acute cerebral haemorrhage during the12‐month follow‐up. VAC therapy combined with bi‐pectoral muscle flap is a simple and effective treatment for DSWIs with short hospital stays and few complications. However, this is a retrospective case series presentation with no comparison group; further large‐scale controlled studies are needed.
In recent years, hydrosurgery is a technology that has been applied more and more in debridement procedures. However, the selectivity of hydrosurgery to cutaneous necrotic tissues has not been proved. This study was designed to investigate the possible tissue selectivity of hydrosurgery in the debridement in burn wounds. Deep partial‐thickness burns were produced on the back of porcine, and 48 hours later, both burn wounds and normal skin were debrided using the hydrosurgery system. Then tissue samples were taken, and histological staining was performed and observed under microscope. Burn wound resection rates and the normal skin damaged rates were measured. Our result indicated that the burn wounds were significantly more sensitive than the normal skin when the water pressure produced by the hydrosurgery system was set between 3000 and 5000 psi (pounds per square inch), that is, the necrotic tissue portions were debrided more easily than the normal skin tissue. Based on these data, we suggest that 3000 to 5000 psi of water pressure in the hydrosurgery system has a skin tissue selectivity in burn wounds.
Objetivo principal: relatar a experiência das práticas de educação em saúde, por um grupo de profissionais, integrantes da Atenção Primária em Saúde, em zonas de prostituição de Rio Grande/RS. Metodologia: Trata-se de um relato de experiência, realizado em 2016, por um grupo de profissionais (Enfermeira, Assistente Social, Educador Social e motorista), vinculados a secretaria de saúde de um município do extremo sul do Brasil. Em uma unidade móvel de saúde, o grupo percorreu as zonas de prostituição (postos de gasolina, ruas e boates). De abril a agosto de 2016, os profissionais de saúde desenvolveram ações de conscientização sobre a importância dos riscos inerentes a profissão, sobre o cuidado de si, através da oferta de testes rápidos, distribuição de preservativos masculinos e femininos e lubrificantes íntimos. Resultados: Vinte zonas de prostituição foram encontradas pela equipe, concentrados em ruas, boates e postos de combustíveis espalhados pela cidade. Cerca de 200 profis-sionais do sexo, foram atendidas pelo grupo, sendo ofertados mensalmente 40 exames de testes rápidos e 40 carteiras sociais. Quanto a pre-venção as ISTs, foram distribuídos 1500 preservativos masculinos, 200 preservativos femininos e 500 lubrificantes íntimos. Conclusão: A equipe, de forma itinerante, atuou de forma exitosa na busca, não somente de orientá-las quanto aos riscos inerentes a profissão, mas também de conhecer um pouco da sua história, do resgate a cidadania e da autoestima, a uma população que tem seus direitos frequentemente violados. Percebe-se nessa vivência a importância da educação em saúde como um instrumento de promoção e prevenção, na busca pela valorização dessas pessoas.
Bacterial infection is a common wound complication that can significantly delay healing. Classical local therapies for infected wounds are expensive and are frequently ineffective. One alternative therapy is photodynamic therapy (PDT). We conducted a systematic review to clarify whether PDT is useful for bacteria‐infected wounds in animal models. PubMed and Medline were searched for articles on PDT in infected skin wounds in animals. The language was limited to English. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The overall study methodological quality was moderate, with a low‐moderate risk of bias. The animal models were mice and rats. The wounds were excisional, burn, and abrasion wounds. Wound size ranged from 6 mm in diameter to 1.5 × 1.5 cm2. Most studies inoculated the wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eleven and 17 studies showed that the PDT of infected wounds significantly decreased wound size and bacterial counts, respectively. Six, four, and two studies examined the effect of PDT on infected wound‐cytokine levels, wound‐healing time, and body weight, respectively. Most indicated that PDT had beneficial effects on these variables. PDT accelerated bacteria‐infected wound healing in animals by promoting wound closure and killing bacteria.
by David P. Perrault, Gene K. Lee, Antoun Bouz, Cynthia Sung, Roy Yu, Austin J. Pourmoussa, Sun Young Park, Gene H. Kim, Wan Jiao, Ketan M. Patel, Young-Kwon Hong, Alex K. WongVascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) is a promising treatment modality for lymphedema; however, how lymphatic tissue responds to ischemia has not been well defined. This study investigates the cellular changes that occur in lymph nodes in response to ischemia and reperfusion. Lymph node containing superficial epigastric artery-based groin flaps were isolated in Prox-1 EGFP rats which permits real time identification of lymphatic tissue by green fluorescence during flap dissection. Flaps were subjected to ischemia for either 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours, by temporarily occluding the vascular pedicle. Flaps were harvested after 0 hours, 24 hours, or 5 days of reperfusion. Using EGFP signal guidance, lymph nodes were isolated from the flaps and tissue morphology, cell apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokines were quantified and analyzed via histology, immunostaining, and rtPCR. There was a significant increase in collagen deposition and tissue fibrosis in lymph nodes after 4 and 8 hours of ischemia compared to 1 and 2 hours, as assessed by picrosirius red staining. Cell apoptosis significantly increased after 4 hours of ischemia in all harvest times. In tissue subject to 4 hours of ischemia, longer reperfusion periods were associated with increased rates of CD3+ and CD45+ cell apoptosis. rtPCR analysis demonstrated significantly increased expression of CXCL1/GRO-α with 2 hours of ischemia and increased PECAM-1 and TNF-α expression with 1 hour of ischemia. Significant cell death and changes in tissue morphology do not occur until after 4 hours of ischemia; however, analysis of inflammatory biomarkers suggests that ischemia reperfusion injury can occur with as little as 2 hours of ischemia.
by Felix Girrbach, Tobias Landeck, Dominic Schneider, Stefan U. Reske, Gunther Hempel, Sören Hammermüller, Udo Gottschaldt, Peter Salz, Katharina Noreikat, Sebastian N. Stehr, Hermann Wrigge, Andreas W. ReskeIntroduction
Posttraumatic pneumothorax (PTX) is often overseen in anteroposterior chest X-ray. Chest sonography and Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) can both be used at the bedside and may provide complementary information. We evaluated the performance of EIT for diagnosing posttraumatic PTX in a pig model.Methods
This study used images from an existing database of images acquired from 17 mechanically ventilated pigs, which had sustained standardized blunt chest trauma and had undergone repeated thoracic CT and EIT. 100 corresponding EIT/CT datasets were randomly chosen from the database and anonymized. Two independent and blinded observers analyzed the EIT data for presence and location of PTX. Analysis of the corresponding CTs by a radiologist served as reference.Results
87/100 cases had at least one PTX detected by CT. Fourty-two cases showed a PTX > 20% of the sternovertebral diameter (PTXtrans20), whereas 52/100 PTX showed a PTX>3 cm in the craniocaudal diameter (PTXcc3), with 20 cases showing both a PTXtranscc and a PTXcc3. We found a very low agreement between both EIT observers considering the classification overall PTX/noPTX (κ = 0.09, p = 0.183). For PTXtrans20, sensitivity was 59% for observer 1 and 17% for observer 2, with a specificity of 48% and 50%, respectively. For PTXcc3, observer 1 showed a sensitivity of 60% with a specificity of 51% while the sensitivity of observer 2 was 17%, with a specificity of 89%. By programming a semi-automatized detection algorithm, we significantly improved the detection rate of PTXcc3, with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 70%. However, detection of PTXtranscc was not improved.Conclusion
In our analysis, visual interpretation of EIT without specific image processing or comparison with baseline data did not allow clinically useful diagnosis of posttraumatic PTX. Multimodal imaging approaches, technical improvements and image postprocessing algorithms might improve the performance of EIT for diagnosing PTX in the future.
by Jan Willem Elting, Marit L. Sanders, Ronney B. Panerai, Marcel Aries, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Alexander Caicedo, Max Chacon, Erik D. Gommer, Sabine Van Huffel, José L. Jara, Kyriaki Kostoglou, Adam Mahdi, Vasilis Z. Marmarelis, Georgios D. Mitsis, Martin Müller, Dragana Nikolic, Ricardo C. Nogueira, Stephen J. Payne, Corina Puppo, Dae C. Shin, David M. Simpson, Takashi Tarumi, Bernardo Yelicich, Rong Zhang, Jurgen A. H. R. ClaassenWe tested the influence of blood pressure variability on the reproducibility of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) estimates. Data were analyzed from the 2nd CARNet bootstrap initiative, where mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and end tidal CO2 were measured twice in 75 healthy subjects. DCA was analyzed by 14 different centers with a variety of different analysis methods. Intraclass Correlation (ICC) values increased significantly when subjects with low power spectral density MABP (PSD-MABP) values were removed from the analysis for all gain, phase and autoregulation index (ARI) parameters. Gain in the low frequency band (LF) had the highest ICC, followed by phase LF and gain in the very low frequency band. No significant differences were found between analysis methods for gain parameters, but for phase and ARI parameters, significant differences between the analysis methods were found. Alternatively, the Spearman-Brown prediction formula indicated that prolongation of the measurement duration up to 35 minutes may be needed to achieve good reproducibility for some DCA parameters. We conclude that poor DCA reproducibility (ICC 0.6) values when cases with low PSD-MABP are removed, and probably also when measurement duration is increased.
To evaluate the efficacy of the reduction of visual and auditory stimuli on pain during venipuncture in premature newborns of 32–36 weeks of gestation.
Open, randomized, non‐blind parallel clinical trial.
Study to take place at the neonatal intensive care unit of a University Hospital in 2019–2021. Fifty‐six recently born babies between 32‐36 weeks of gestation will participate. The dependent variable is the level of pain determined using the premature infant pain profile instrument. The intervention will be assigned randomly using the random.org software. Data analysis will be carried out using the IBM SPSS v.25 software assuming a level of significance of 5%.
The evidence for the efficacy of reducing sensory stimulation and its effect on pain in minor procedures has not been studied in depth. There are no studies that evaluate the reduction of visual and auditory stimuli in a combined way.
It is easy to incorporate the reduction of visual and auditory stimuli into nursing practice. The results of this study could have a direct impact on clinical practice.
Trial registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04041635
To examine whether there were significant differences in sleep during weekdays/weekends and whether the intra‐individual variability in sleep was related to glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Correlational, longitudinal design.
Data were collected between February 2017–January 2018. In all, 56 adults with type 2 diabetes were included (60.7 years, 55.4% female). Sleep was measured using the Consensus Sleep Diary over 8 days. Intra‐individual variability of sleep was calculated as the standard deviation of sleep variables. Standard deviations of sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep quality, and mid‐sleep time were obtained. Glycaemic control was measured by haemoglobin A1C. Paired t test and multiple regression analysis were used.
Overall, there were no differences in sleep parameters between weekdays and weekends. Participants slept 20 min more over the weekends than during weekdays. The mid‐sleep time during weekends was about 35 min later than during weekdays. Intra‐individual variability of sleep duration and mid‐sleep ranged from 27.6–167.4 min and 13–137 min, respectively. Controlling for covariates (e.g., distress, symptoms, and self‐care), larger variability in sleep duration, and mid‐sleep were significantly related to higher A1C levels.
Diabetes educators are recommended to include the assessment of intra‐individual variability in sleep. Maintaining a regular sleep habit (e.g., sleep duration and sleep timing) should be highlighted during patient education.
Intra‐individual variability in sleep is an alternative dimension for sleep assessment. This study examined whether intra‐individual variability in sleep was related to glycaemic control in an older sample of type 2 diabetes patients using a sleep diary across 8 days. This sample had a similar sleep pattern during weekdays and weekends. Larger intra‐individual variabilities in sleep duration and mid‐sleep time were independently related to worse glycaemic control. Diabetes patients are recommended to maintain a regular sleep routine.
The aim was to examine the reciprocal relationships of emotional labour strategies with emotional exhaustion and professional identity.
This study adopted a four‐wave cross‐lagged panel design.
Survey data were collected in 2018 from a sample of 171 newly hired nurses from 58 hospitals in 11 provinces of China. Nurses’ emotional labour (i.e., deep acting and surface acting), emotional exhaustion and professional identity were repeatedly measured. Cross‐lagged panel analyses were conducted to examine the reciprocal relationships we hypothesized.
We found that emotional exhaustion was positively related to surface acting (but not vice versa); deep acting was negatively related to emotional exhaustion (but not vice versa); professional identity was positively related to deep acting (but not vice versa).
Our findings suggest that deep acting and professional identity may decrease the level of emotional exhaustion, whereas emotionally exhausted nurses are more likely to employ surface acting strategies.
This research finding will have an impact on the nursing management. Healthcare managers may consider workshops or training and development programs that promote nurses’ professional identify to promote nurses’ use of deep acting and consequently reduce their level of emotional exhaustion, which has been associated with a variety of negative consequences, such as low quality of patient service, high medical accidents, and turnover rate.
To clarify the specific impact paths among physical activity, activity of daily living, depression and quality of life among dementia patients.
A descriptive, cross‐sectional design.
Dementia patients and their caregivers from five tertiary general hospitals and one dementia patients’ club were recruited. A total of 216 valid questionnaires were collected from November 2018 ‐ March 2019. Path analysis was performed by Mplus 7.0 to test the casual relationship among physical activity, activity of daily living, depression and quality of life.
Most patients with dementia presented a low level of physical activity and suffered from impaired quality of life. The modified model presented a good model fit and revealed that physical activity had indirect positive effects on quality of life mediated by activity of daily living and depression.
The results showed that physical activity was a promising non‐pharmacological method to improve the performance of activity of daily living and reduce depressive symptoms and then enhance the quality of life among dementia patients.
The findings were beneficial to elevate the awareness of physical activity among patients and professionals. This study was helpful to understand how physical activity exerted effects on life quality of dementia patients. This study provided a new perspective for researchers to elucidate the causal relationship of variables among dementia patients.
To investigate workplace violence and nurse outcomes by comparing gender differences.
A secondary analysis of cross‐sectional survey data.
Workplace violence was measured by four items from the International Hospital Outcome Study. Nurse outcomes were measured by tools including burnout, job satisfaction and intention to stay. We used propensity score matching to generate a sociodemographic balanced dataset of 108 male and 288 female nurses. A hypothetical relationship model was derived from the affective events theory. Comparative statistics and multi‐group structural equation modelling were conducted to analyze gender differences. Data were collected in China from December 2013 – August 2014.
Male nurses reported more workplace violence from staff and less intention to stay than females. Besides finding the mediation of burnout sharing with female nurses consistent with the affective events theory, workplace violence was directly linked to less intention to stay in male nurses.
Male nurses experience more workplace violence by staff than female nurses. Besides responding emotionally to workplace violence like female nurses, male nurses also respond behaviourally.
What problem did the study address? Gender differences in workplace violence and its relationship to nurse outcomes. What were the main findings? Male nurses experienced more workplace violence than female nurses, linked directly to less intention to stay. Workplace violence linked to less job satisfaction and intention to stay in nurses was mediated by burnout. Where and on whom will the research have impact? Gender‐based prevention of and coping with workplace violence should be included in nursing training.
To evaluate the effectiveness on lifestyle change of an mHealth intervention to promote healthy behaviours in adolescence (TeenPower) and to analyse the predictors of the mHealth intervention effectiveness.
This study is designed as a non‐randomized controlled trial with a two‐arm structure.
Adolescents of 12–16‐year old were recruited from three school districts, with access to the Internet and smartphone/tablet devices. The intervention group was invited to engage in the mHealth intervention (TeenPower) for 6 months in addition to a school‐based intervention. The control group only followed the school‐based intervention. A repeated measures factorial ANOVA was used and the main effectiveness outcome was the lifestyle change measured by the adolescent lifestyle profile.
The outcomes of the mHealth intervention (TeenPower) show a significant effect on nutrition (ƞ 2p = 0.03, p = .03), positive life perspective (ƞ 2p = 0.04, p = .01), and global lifestyle (ƞ 2p = 0.02, p = .05), with a dropout rate of 62.1%. The analysis of the effectiveness predictors of the mHealth intervention suggested that older adolescents tended to show a significant increase in the rates of stress management (r = .40; p < .05).
Although the considerable dropout rate, the mHealth intervention presented significant impact on multiple lifestyle domains, providing support for the effectiveness of mHealth interventions for health promotion as an add‐on to standard interdisciplinary interventions.
Adolescents must have the necessary and appropriate knowledge for the correct and responsible decision‐making regarding their health and lifestyle. Innovative strategies (mHealth intervention) were used to promote healthy behaviours. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention (TeenPower) specifically designed for adolescents. We found a significant impact in several lifestyle domains such as health responsibility, nutrition, positive life perspective, and global lifestyle.
To explore whether educational information delivered via a medical smartphone app in conjunction with verbal and written instructions, compared with traditional booklet‐based and verbal instructions, could improve the quality of bowel preparation for hospitalized patients undergoing colonoscopy.
A prospective, single‐blinded, randomized controlled trial.
We performed a prospective, endoscopist‐blinded, randomized, controlled trial at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University in China between October 2017–March 2018. Inpatients who are eligible, based on the inclusion criteria, were randomized into two groups. Both groups received oral and written instructions for bowel preparation. In addition, the smartphone app group received instructions through a medical smartphone app. The primary outcome was the rate of adequate bowel preparation according to the Boston bowel preparation scale score. The secondary outcomes included patient compliance with instructions on how to take laxatives, side effects and rates of adenoma detection.
A total of 293 patients were enrolled in this study. Demographic characteristics were comparable between the two groups. The χ2 test showed that the medical smartphone app group showed significant improvement in the rate of adequate bowel preparation compared with the control group (77.2% vs. 56.8%, p < .001). The adenoma detection rate (ADR) was significantly higher in the smartphone app group than in the control group (21.4% vs. 12.8%, p = .029) based on the χ2 test. The rates of incomplete compliance with instructions were 15.17% in the smartphone app group and 33.11% in the control group (p < .001) based on the χ2 test. The overall adverse events were 23.45% and 37.84% in the smartphone app and control groups, respectively (p = .008), based on the χ2 test.
Instructions provided via a mobile social media app in conjunction with traditional verbal and written methods could improve the quality of bowel preparation, increase the ADR and decrease adverse effects. App instructions could be an effective addition to oral and written instructions for inpatients undergoing colonoscopy.
This study suggested that clinical personnel could deliver information via smartphone as a powerful addition to traditional educational methods that could improve work efficiency and help patients increase the success rate of bowel preparation.
Trial registration: Chinese clinical trial registration number: ChiCTR1900024666.