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The relation between psychological distress and medication adherence in lung transplant candidates and recipients: A cross‐sectional study


Aims and objectives

To explore the prevalence of psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder and its associations with medication adherence in lung transplant patients.


Psychological distress after lung transplantation may impact clinical outcomes by associated behaviours such as non-adherence to medication. Evidence about the relation between psychological distress and medication adherence in lung transplant patients is limited and not well explained.

Design and methods

We conducted a single-centre study with a cross-sectional design in 73 lung transplant candidates and 116 recipients. Questionnaires were the Brief Symptom Inventory, Impact of Event Scale and Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. The STROBE checklist was monitored.


In candidates, 39.7% reported (sub)clinical symptoms of depression, in recipients this was 21.6%. We observed suicidal ideation in recipients (8.6%), and candidates (5.5%). The prevalence of (sub)clinical symptoms of anxiety was 38.3% in candidates and 33.7% in recipients. After lung transplantation, 12% of the recipients reported clinical symptoms of PTSD related to the transplantation. Symptoms of anxiety and medication adherence were significantly and positively related in transplant recipients. We found no association between depressive or post-traumatic stress symptoms, and medication adherence.


In lung transplant patients, we found a high prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety. Recipients had high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms related to the transplantation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was unexpectedly high in recipients. After lung transplantation, higher levels of anxiety were related to better medication adherence. We propose that LTX recipients are very anxious to develop dyspnoea and therefore take their medication more conscientiously.

Relevance to clinical practice

The clinical nurse specialist can play a key role in identifying and addressing psychological and behavioural problems. More prospective research on the role of anxiety and dyspnoea in lung transplant recipients is recommended.

Gut-directed hypnotherapy versus standard medical treatment for nausea in children with functional nausea or functional dyspepsia: protocol of a multicentre randomised trial

Por: Browne · P. D. · den Hollander · B. · Speksnijder · E. M. · van Wering · H. M. · Tjon a Ten · W. · George · E. K. · Groeneweg · M. · Bevers · N. · Wessels · M. M. S. · van den Berg · M. M. · Goede · J. · Teklenburg-Roord · S. T. A. · Frankenhuis · C. · Benninga · M. A. · Vlieger · A

The treatment of chronic functional nausea or nausea due to functional dyspepsia in children is generally symptomatic. Moreover, these disorders pose a risk for worse psychosocial and health outcomes in children. Hypnotherapy (HT), by its ability to positively influence gastrointestinal and psychosocial functioning, may be an effective treatment for chronic nausea.

Methods and analysis

To test efficacy, this multicentre, parallel, randomised controlled, open label trial evaluates whether gut-directed HT is superior to standard medical treatment (SMT) for reducing nausea. The study will be conducted at eleven academic and non-academic hospitals across the Netherlands. A total of 100 children (8–18 years), fulfilling the Rome IV criteria for chronic idiopathic nausea or functional dyspepsia with prominent nausea, will be randomly allocated (1:1) to receive HT or SMT. Children allocated to the HT group will receive six sessions of HT during 3 months, while children allocated to the SMT group will receive six sessions of SMT+supportive therapy during the same period. The primary outcome will be the difference in the proportion of children with at least 50% reduction of nausea, compared with baseline at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include the changes in abdominal pain, dyspeptic symptoms, quality of life, anxiety, depression, school absences, parental absence of work, healthcare costs and adequate relief of symptoms, measured directly after treatment, 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. If HT proves effective for reducing nausea, it may become a new treatment strategy to treat children with chronic functional nausea or functional dyspepsia with prominent nausea.

Ethics and dissemination

Results of the study will be publicly disclosed to the public, without any restrictions, in peer-reviewed journal and international conferences. The study is approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committees United (MEC-U) in the Netherlands.

Trial registration number