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Motivos que llevan a las mujeres a optar por el parto domiciliario planificado

Objetivo principal: conocer los motivos que llevan a las mujeres a optar por el parto domiciliário planificado. Metodología: estudio descrip-tivo, exploratorio, con un enfoque cualitativo. Participaron en la investigaciõn nueve mujeres que han optado por tener su parto en casa. Recolección de datos se produjo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, realizadas individualmente. Se utilizó la técnica de análisis de contenido de tipo temático. Resultados principales: del análisis emergieron los temas: Motivos que llevaron al parto domiciliário; Percep-ción de las mujeres sobre el parto domiciliário; Conductas de los profesionales de la salud en el parto domiciliário; y El enfermero frente a la asistencia al parto domiciliário. Conclusión principal: Las mujeres que optan por el parto domiciliario buscan una atención más humana sobre el parto, evitando una serie de intervenciones innecesarias, comunes en los hospitales.

Operating room nurses' self‐reported knowledge and attitude on perioperative pressure injury

Abstract

Surgical patients are at risk of developing a perioperative pressure injury (ORPI) during surgery. Accurate assessment and prompt implementation of prevention strategies or treatment of ORPI are dependent on knowledge and skills of operating room (OR) nurses. The study examined the knowledge and attitude of OR nurses in identifying at‐risk patients. A cross‐sectional, prospective, descriptive study was adopted. OR nurses were invited to complete the survey using the attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention instrument (Cronbach α of 0.79) and pressure ulcer knowledge assessment tool (Cronbach α of 0.77). Approximately, 28% of OR nurses took part in the survey. Most of them were females (99%) with a mean age of 38.4 ± 12.9 years old. Of these, 73% of the nurses described not having adequate experience in preventing ORPI, and 88% of them were uncertain about the treatment strategies. The mean overall knowledge score was 47.8 ± 9.1% for this cohort. The study demonstrated that approximately 8.9% of OR nurses passed with a score ≥ 60% for knowledge. The mean overall attitude score was 74.6 ± 6.1% for this cohort. About 35.6% of these nurses gave positive scores of greater than 75% for attitudes. The knowledge scores have no relationship with the working experience, role responsibility, academic qualification, ethnicity, nationality, and gender except for age 35 years older or equal and younger. Still, both the knowledge and attitude scores obtained have a strong relationship with the nurses' experiences with PI prevention. Personal competency to prevent PI has a strong correlation with risk identifying and preventing PI. There are strong associations between being responsible for PI development and the knowledge on risk identification and prevention of PI. The attitude regarding the prioritisation of PI prevention is also strongly correlated to the nurses' knowledge in preventing PI. Positive attitudes of OR nurses have no relationship with the overall knowledge scores. The prevention of ORPI is not on the list of priorities among OR nurses. The knowledge of preventive measures and risk identification of PI was limited among local OR nurses. Incorporating a standard screening and assessment tool within the current assessment list will support and promote ORPI risk assessment and continuous assessment. Contextualised education on ORPI prevention and management should be considered part of the training for OR nurses.

Recursos documentales CUIDEN y su utilidad para la evaluación del conocimiento en Cuidados de Salud

La inclusión de revistas científicas en fuentes documentales ha evolucionado desde la exhaustividad hacia la selectividad, en función del uso creciente que se hace de las mismas a efectos de evaluación del conocimiento. El entorno CUIDEN, que incorpora la base de datos referencial y el índice de citas CUIDEN Citación, no ha sido ajeno a esta tendencia, de manera que en los últimos años ha extremado los criterios de selección, a la vez que ha reducido el tiempo en que la información bibliométrica está disponible. En este trabajo se describen ambos recursos documentales y se exponen sus propiedades en la evaluación de revistas de enfermería y afines del ámbito iberoamericano, complementando así la escasa información que sobre las mismas proporcionan otras fuentes más genéricas. Se aporta como ejemplo dos modelos de evaluación correspondientes a los países más productores de conocimiento enfermero en Iberoamérica: Brasil y España.

Pain in persons with chronic venous leg ulcers: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Abstract

Pain is a serious problem for patients with leg ulcers. Research mainly focuses on dressing‐related pain; however, chronic background pain may be just as devastating. Our main objective was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of wound‐related background pain in persons with chronic venous leg ulcers. We performed a systematic review to synthesise data from quantitative studies. Studies were eligible if they reported original baseline‐ or cross‐sectional data on background pain in chronic venous leg ulcers. The initial search identified 2454 publications. We included 36 descriptive and effect studies. The pooled prevalence of wound‐related background pain (from 10 studies) was 80% (95% CI 65‐92%). The mean pain intensity score (from 27 studies) was 4 (0‐10 numeric rating scale) (95% CI 3.4‐4.5). Other pain characteristics could not be synthesised. We identified few sufficiently high‐quality studies on prevalence and intensity of wound‐related background pain in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. Four of five persons experience mild to moderate pain. Because of poor quality of pain assessment and report, we believe that the available research does not provide a sufficiently nuanced understanding of background pain in this patient group.

Does obesity impact the outcome of severely burned patients?

Abstract

Although obesity appears to be an important predictor of mortality and morbidity, little data about the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of severely burned patients are available. Patients admitted to the General Hospital Vienna between 1994 and 2014, who underwent surgery because of burn injuries, were enrolled in this study. BMI was used to divide patients into five groups: BMI 18.5 to 24.9, 25 to 29.9, 30 to 34.9, 35 to 39.9, and > 40. The groups were compared in terms of difference of mortality and morbidity. Of 460 patients, 34.3% (n = 158) died. Mortality rates were the lowest in patients with obesity class III and the highest in patients with BMI 35 to 39.9 (BMI 18.5‐24.9: 30.5%, BMI 25‐29.9: 31.5%, BMI 30‐34.9: 41.3%, BMI 35‐39.9: 55.5%, BMI > 40: 30%; P = .031). BMI was not found to be an independent risk factor when corrected with age, percent total body surface area burned, full‐thickness burns, and inhalation injury. No significant differences in length of stay, inhalation trauma, pneumonia, wound infection, sepsis, and invasive ventilation were observed. BMI as an independent risk factor for severely burned patients could not be confirmed via multivariate analysis.

Prototype Development, Usability, and Preference of a Culturally-relevant Pictorial Aid to Facilitate Comprehension of Likert-type Levels of Agreement in Caregivers of Children Living With HIV in Ghana

imagePictorial illustrations of Likert-type scales are culturally useful and may reduce error associated with usage of Westernized self-report measures in low- and middle-income countries. Pictorial illustrations can be encounter-specific decision aids in populations with low literacy or English proficiency. In an unanticipated finding from the SANKOFA study, caregivers of children living with human immunodeficiency virus experienced challenges comprehending Likert-type scales. A cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted with a SANKOFA participant subset (n = 30) in Ghana. Using an informatics-based formative design approach, we developed a culturally-relevant pictorial aid to assess usability and preference when compared to a Likert-type self-report measure. Ninety percent (n = 27) of substudy participants preferred the pictorial of a traditional Bolga basket over a shallow basket. Forty-three percent (n = 13) preferred the pictorial aid over the Likert-type measure. Fifty percent reported the pictorial aid was easy to use. Fifty-seven percent preferred the Likert-type measure, potentially because English proficiency is regarded in Ghana as a means of upward social and financial mobility. Such cultural norms may have contributed to the lack of consensus and must be considered for pictorial aids to be meaningful. Pictorial aids have been designed for use in clinical and research settings. They reduce barriers associated with lower textual literacy while facilitating comprehension and decision-making.

The Purpose of Bedside Robots: Exploring the Needs of Inpatients and Healthcare Professionals

imageRobotic systems are used to support inpatients and healthcare professionals and to improve the efficiency and quality of nursing. There is a lack of scientific literature on how applied robotic systems can be used to support inpatients. This study uses surveys and focus group interviews to identify the necessary aspects and functions of bedside robots for inpatients. A total of 90 healthcare professionals and 108 inpatients completed the questionnaire, and four physicians and five nurses participated in the focus group interviews. The most highly desired functionalities were related to patient care and monitoring, including alerting staff, measuring vital signs, and sensing falls. Nurses and physicians reported different needs for human-robot interaction. Nurses valued robotic functions such as nonverbal expression recognition, automatic movement, content suggestion, and emotional expressions. The results of the patients' open-ended questions and healthcare professionals' focus groups indicate that the purpose of the robots should primarily be treatment and nursing. Participants believe bedside robots would be helpful but have concerns regarding safety and utility. This study attempts to determine which aspects of robots may increase their acceptance. Our findings suggest that if robots are used in healthcare institutions, they may improve the effectiveness of care.

Using an Evidence-Based Approach for Electronic Health Record Downtime Education in Nurse Onboarding

imageElectronic health record systems have been widely implemented throughout healthcare settings over the last few years, and nurses rely on these systems to obtain information about patients, make clinical decisions, and deliver safe and appropriate care. Health information technology systems have electronic health record downtime episodes both due to scheduled maintenance and unforeseen circumstances. The ability to deliver safe and effective care during electronic health record downtime episodes is important, yet training on electronic health record downtime is rarely included for nursing staff. This quality improvement project implemented an electronic health record downtime training course and administered it to 50 onboarding nurses within the hospital facility. The participants indicated a positive perception of electronic health record downtime preparedness after the course offering related to ability to find and follow downtime procedures. However, no precourse metrics were obtained, and therefore it is uncertain if this positive perception is a direct result of the electronic health record downtime training course. While initial results are promising, further investigation will need to be conducted to determine training course effectiveness.

Knowledge Discovery With Machine Learning for Hospital-Acquired Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

imageMassive generation of health-related data has been key in enabling the big data science initiative to gain new insights in healthcare. Nursing can benefit from this era of big data science, as there is a growing need for new discoveries from large quantities of nursing data to provide evidence-based care. However, there are few nursing studies using big data analytics. The purpose of this article is to explain a knowledge discovery and data mining approach that was employed to discover knowledge about hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections from multiple data sources, including electronic health records and nurse staffing data. Three different machine learning techniques are described: decision trees, logistic regression, and support vector machines. The decision tree model created rules to interpret relationships among associated factors of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The logistic regression model showed what factors were related to a higher risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The support vector machines model was included to compare performance with the other two interpretable models. This article introduces the examples of cutting-edge machine learning approaches that will advance secondary use of electronic health records and integration of multiple data sources as well as provide evidence necessary to guide nursing professionals in practice.

Non‐healing wounds: Can it take different diagnosis?

Abstract

Wound healing is a complex cellular and biochemical process and can be affected by several systemic and local factors. In this study, we aimed to discuss the aetiologic factors of non‐healing wounds and the management of this complicated process with current information. The medical data of the patients who were admitted to our clinic due to non‐healing or chronic wounds were analysed retrospectively. A total of 27 patients were evaluated retrospectively during the 14 months of the study. The data of 6 patients who were followed up for chronic wound that developed after abdominal incisional hernia repair and pilonidal sinus surgery were not included in the study as their data could not be reached. A total of 21 patients were included in the study. Malignancy was diagnosed in two patients and granulomatous disease was found in four patients. The aetiology of the other cases included foreign body reaction, infection, and mechanical causes. Non‐healing wounds are a serious social and economic problem for patients. Further studies on the pathophysiology of various aetiologies in non‐healing wounds in both clinical settings and experimental animal models would be a useful step in treatment.

Enfriamiento del cuero cabelludo para la prevención de la alopecia inducida por quimioterapia

Introducción. La quimioterapia produce el efecto secundario más temido por los pacientes con cáncer, la alopecia, que podría evitarse con gorros de crioterapia del cuero cabelludo. Objetivo principal. Evaluar la crioterapia del cuero cabelludo como método preventivo para la alopecia inducida por quimioterapia. Metodología. Se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica narrativa, seleccionándose 22 artículos, introduciendo ecuaciones de búsqueda en varias bases de datos. Desarrollo. Su eficacia es difícil de determinar y la efectividad es muy variable, aprobándose en pacientes con cánceres sólidos. Sin embargo, existen ciertos efectos secundarios, requiriéndose de cuidados de enfermería independientemente de la técnica utilizada. Conclusiones. Estudios han demostrado que el uso de este método es eficaz y efectivo, y que su uso no aumenta el riesgo de metástasis en el cuero cabelludo, contraindicándose en pacientes con tumores hematoló-gicos.

Coverage of exposed bone and hardware of the medial malleolus with tibialis posterior artery perforator flap after ankle fracture surgery complications

Abstract

Ankle fractures are among the most common orthopaedic surgical procedures. Skin‐related complications of these surgeries are difficult to reconstruct due to the inadequacy of soft tissue in the region. Although free flaps are generally considered as the first choice in reconstruction of this area, free flaps may not be a suitable option especially in patients with advanced age and comorbidities. Perforator flaps offer a fast and safe alternative in lower extremity reconstruction. In the literature, there are a limited number of studies using perforator flaps in managing the postoperative complications of the lower extremity trauma surgeries. In our study, we report our experience with reconstruction of soft‐tissue defects of medial malleolar region using posterior tibial artery perforator flap for postoperative complications of ankle fracture‐related surgeries.

Nano‐hydrogel embedded with quercetin and oleic acid as a new formulation in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer: A pilot study

Abstract

Wound healing, especially diabetic ones, is a relevant clinical problem, so it is not surprising that surgical procedures are often needed. To overcome invasive procedures, several strategies with drugs or natural compound are used. Recently, in an experimental study, we described an increase in keratinocyte proliferation after their exposition to quercetin plus oleic acid. In the present clinical study, we evaluated both the clinical efficacy and the safety of nano‐hydrogel embedded with quercetin and oleic acid in the treatment of lower limb skin wound in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Fifty‐six DM patients (28 men and 28 women, mean age 61.7 ± 9.2 years) unsuccessfully treated with mechanical compression were enrolled and randomised to receive an add on treatment with hyaluronic acid (0.2%) or nano‐hydrogel embedded with quercetin and oleic acid. The treatment with nano‐hydrogel embedded with quercetin and oleic acid significantly (P < .01) reduced the wound healing time, in comparison to hyaluronic acid (0.2%) without developing of adverse drug reactions, suggesting that this formulation could be used in the management of wound healing even if other clinical trials must be performed in order to validate this observation.

Identification of mycobacteria species by molecular methods

Abstract

In this study, mycobacteria, which were previously identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) with cord factor and the p‐nitro‐alpha‐acetyl‐amino‐beta‐hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) test were reanalysed using the polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR‐RFLP) analysis method in order to confirm the identification, and at the same time, species accepted as MOTT were identified. Although the results of the NAP test were obtained within 3‐5 days, the PCR‐RFLP results were obtained in 1 day. Ten species identified as MTC with the NAP test and cord factor were confirmed with the PCR‐RFLP method. Fourteen species accepted as MOTT were identified as Mycobacterium species with the evaluation of the bands observed after the restriction of PCR product with the PCR‐RFLP method. These were as follows: three species Mycobacterium intracellulare type I, two species Mycobacterium phlei, two species Mycobacterium kansasii, one species Mycobacterium fortuitum type I, one species Mycobacterium gordonae type I, one species Mycobacterium abscessus type I, one species Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, one species Mycobacterium szulgai type I, one species Mycobacterium avium type II, and one species Mycobacterium terrae. Hence, the results of both the cord factor and the NAP test were confirmed with the molecular method, and at the same time, mycobacteria species identification was made by determining the fastest, easiest, and the most accurate result‐giving method. Because PCR‐RFLP is a very rapid method that provides exact identification of mycobacteria species, it can be performed in routine procedures.

Biological approaches for hypertrophic scars

Abstract

Scar formation is usually the pathological consequence of skin trauma. And hypertrophic scars (HSs) frequently occur in people after being injured deeply. HSs are unusually considered as the result of tissue contraction and excessive extracellular matrix component deposition. Myofibroblasts, as the effector cells, mainly differentiated from fibroblasts, play the crucial role in the pathophysiology of HSs. A number of growth factors, inflammatory cytokines involved in the process of HS occurrence. Currently, with in‐depth exploration and clinical research of HSs, various creative and effective treatments budded. In here, we summarize the progress in the molecular mechanism of HSs, and review the available biotherapeutic methods for their pathophysiological characteristics. Additionally, we further prospected that the comprehensive therapy may be more suitable for HS treatment.

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