A huge population in India is at high risk of type-2 diabetes (T2DM). Physical activity and a healthy diet (healthy lifestyle) improve blood glucose levels in people at high risk of T2DM. However, an unhealthy lifestyle is common among Indians. Yoga covers physical activity and a healthy diet and can help to prevent T2DM. The research question to be addressed by the main randomised controlled trial (RCT) is whether a Yoga programme for T2DM prevention (YOGA-DP) is effective in preventing T2DM among high risk people in India as compared with enhanced standard care. In this current study, we are determining the feasibility of undertaking the main RCT.
YOGA-DP is a structured lifestyle education and exercise programme. The exercise part is based on Yoga and includes Shithilikarana Vyayama (loosening exercises), Surya Namaskar (sun salutation exercises), Asana (Yogic poses), Pranayama (breathing practices) and Dhyana (meditation) and relaxation practices.
This is a multicentre, two-arm, parallel-group, feasibility RCT with blinded outcome assessment and integrated mixed-methods process evaluation. Eligible participants should be aged 18–74 years, at high risk of T2DM (fasting plasma glucose level 5.6–6.9 mmol/L) and safe to participate in physical activities. At least 64 participants will be randomised to intervention or control group with final follow-up at 6 months. Important parameters, needed to design the main RCT, will be estimated, such as SD of the outcome measure (fasting plasma glucose level at 6-month follow-up), recruitment, intervention adherence, follow-up, potential contamination and time needed to conduct the study. Semistructured qualitative interviews will be conducted with up to 20–30 participants, a sample of those declining to participate, four YOGA-DP instructors and around eight study staff to explore their perceptions and experiences of taking part in the study and of the intervention, reasons behind non-participation, experiences of delivering the intervention and running the study, respectively.
Ethics approval has been obtained from the following Research Ethics Committees: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham (UK); Centre for Chronic Disease Control (CCDC, India); Bapu Nature Cure Hospital and Yogashram (BNCHY, India) and Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA, India). The results will be widely disseminated among key stakeholders through various avenues.
This study aimed to assess the trends and factors that had contributed to the change in home delivery in Ethiopia over the last decade.
A nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted using 2005, 2011 and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys. Multivariate decomposition logistic regression analysis was employed to identify significant factors that have been contributed to the change in home delivery. Level of statistical significance was declared at a two-sided p value
Trends of home delivery.
A total of 33 482 women were included.
Home delivery has been decreased by 21% over the last decade in Ethiopia. In the last decade, 39% of the decrements in home delivery attributed to change in women’s compositional characteristics. Antenatal care visits, educational status of the women and husband, birth order, religion, wealth index and distance from a health facility were the main sources of compositional change factors for the change of home delivery. Behavioural changes towards health facility delivery contributed approximately two-thirds of the decline of home delivery in Ethiopia. Antenatal care visits, birth order and religion have significantly contributed to the change of home delivery resulted from behavioural changes towards healthcare facility utilisation over the last decade.
Despite the importance of health facility delivery, a significant number of women still deliver at home in Ethiopia. Women’s compositional characteristics and behaviour changes were significantly associated with the change in home delivery. Multisectoral educational intervention is needed to change women’s attitudes towards home delivery. Antenatal care coverage and healthcare facility coverage should increase thereby to improve healthcare facility based-delivery practice. Further research needs to be done to explore the potential barriers of health facility delivery from a religious perspective.
To identify the risk areas of deaths due to unspecified pneumonia and tuberculosis (TB) in children, and to identify if there is a relationship between these events with higher TB incidence and social determinants.
Ecological study carried out in Brazil. All cases of TB or unspecified pneumonia deaths in children under 5 years of age reported between 2006 and 2016 were included and collected through Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (Brazil’s electronic database). The Spatial Scan Statistics was used to identify areas at higher risk of dying from this event. The spatial association was verified through the Getis-Ord techniques. The Bivariate Moran Global Index was used to verify the spatial autocorrelation between the two events. To identify the association of TB and pneumonia deaths with endemic areas of pulmonary TB and social determinants, four explanatory statistical models were identified.
A total of 21 391 cases of pneumonia and 238 cases of TB were identified. Spatial scanning analysis enabled the detection of four clusters of risk for TB (relative risk, RR, between 3.30 and 18.18) and 22 clusters for pneumonia (RR between 1.38 and 5.24). The spatial association of the events was confirmed (z-score 3.74 and 64.34) and spatial autocorrelation between events (Moran Index:0.031 (p=0.001)). The zero-inflated negative binomial distribution was chosen, and an association for both events was identified with the TB incidence rate (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.85 to 9.84; OR 6.63, 95% CI 5.62 to 7.81), with the Gini Index (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.82; OR 4.22, 95% CI 3.63 to4.92). Primary care coverage showed an inverse association for both events (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.17; OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) for pneumonia). Finally, a family that benefited from the Bolsa Família Programme had an inverse association for deaths from pneumonia (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.25).
The results do not just contribute to reduce mortality in children, but mainly contribute to prevent premature deaths through identification of critical areas in Brazil, which is crucial to qualify health surveillance services.
Self-monitoring the disease course is a relatively new concept in the management of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). The aims of this pilot study were to obtain patients’ experiences with online self-monitoring, to assess information about the agreement between the disease course assessed with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and an objectively measured Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) by the rheumatologist, and to assess adherence to predetermined PROM frequency intervals.
Observational study using qualitative and quantitative methods.
The rheumatology outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital in The Netherlands (secondary care).
47 patients with an IRD who regularly attended the outpatient clinic.
Patients completed PROMs by using an online self-monitoring program. Their experiences regarding self-monitoring were qualitatively assessed through a focus group discussion and telephone interviews using a thematic analysis approach. Adherence to the predefined PROM frequency (completed PROM assessments within the predetermined frequency) and the agreement between the DAS28 course and PROM values (Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index-5 and the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID)) were quantitatively assessed using descriptives.
Forty-seven patients participated, most of them diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (n=38, 80.9%). Three themes were identified: knowledge about and insight into the disease (activity), patient–professional interaction and functionality of the program. Mean adherence to the predetermined PROM frequency was 68.1%. The RAID showed the best agreement with the DAS28 course. Mean participation time was 350 days.
Patients were predominantly positive about online self-monitoring. They indicated that they gained more knowledge about their disease, felt less dependent on the healthcare professional and valued the insight into their long-term disease course. Barriers were mostly related to technical factors. Patients were able to and willing to self-monitor their disease, which could contribute to a more efficient allocation of outpatient consultations in the future.
Idiopathic acute pancreatitis (IAP) remains a dilemma for physicians as it is uncertain whether patients with IAP may actually have an occult aetiology. It is unclear to what extent additional diagnostic modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) are warranted after a first episode of IAP in order to uncover this aetiology. Failure to timely determine treatable aetiologies delays appropriate treatment and might subsequently cause recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the aim of the Pancreatitis of Idiopathic origin: Clinical added value of endoscopic UltraSonography (PICUS) Study is to determine the value of routine EUS in determining the aetiology of pancreatitis in patients with a first episode of IAP.
PICUS is designed as a multicentre prospective cohort study of 106 patients with a first episode of IAP after complete standard diagnostic work-up, in whom a diagnostic EUS will be performed. Standard diagnostic work-up will include a complete personal and family history, laboratory tests including serum alanine aminotransferase, calcium and triglyceride levels and imaging by transabdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography after clinical recovery from the acute pancreatitis episode. The primary outcome measure is detection of aetiology by EUS. Secondary outcome measures include pancreatitis recurrence rate, severity of recurrent pancreatitis, readmission, additional interventions, complications, length of hospital stay, quality of life, mortality and costs, during a follow-up period of 12 months.
PICUS is conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and Guideline for Good Clinical Practice. Five medical ethics review committees assessed PICUS (Medical Ethics Review Committee of Academic Medical Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Radboud University Medical Center, Erasmus Medical Center and Maastricht University Medical Center). The results will be submitted for publication in an international peer-reviewed journal.
Netherlands Trial Registry (NL7066). Prospectively registered.
The aim of this study is to determine diagnostic patterns in the prehospital paediatric population, age distribution, the level of monitoring and the treatment initiated in the prehospital paediatric case. Hypothesis was that advanced prehospital interventions are rare in the paediatric patient population.
We performed a retrospective population-based registry cohort study of children attended by a physician-staffed emergency medical service (EMS) unit (P-EMS), in the Odense area of Denmark during a 10-year study period.
We screened 44 882 EMS contacts and included 5043 children. Patient characteristics, monitoring and interventions performed by the P-EMS crews were determined.
We found that paediatric patients were a minority among patients attended by P-EMS units: 11.2% (10.9 to 11.5) (95% CI) of patients were children. The majority of the children were
Prehospital paediatric contacts are uncommon, more frequently involving smaller children. Monitoring or at least documentation of basic vital parameters is infrequent and may be an area for improvement. Advanced and potentially life-saving prehospital interventions provide a dilemma since these likely occur too infrequently to allow service providers to maintain their technical skills working solely in the prehospital environment.
Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) is an instrument that informs development, reporting and assessment of clinical practice guidelines. Previous research has demonstrated the need for improvement in methodological and reporting quality of clinical practice guidelines specifically in surgery. We aimed to develop an AGREE II extension document for application in surgical guidelines.
We have performed a structured literature review and assessment of guidelines in surgery using the AGREE II instrument. In exploratory analyses, we have identified factors associated with guideline quality. We have performed reliability and factor analyses to inform the development of an extension document. We will summarise this information and present it to a Delphi panel of stakeholders. We will perform iterative Delphi rounds and we will summarise the final results to develop the extension instrument in a dedicated consensus conference.
Funding bodies will not be involved in the development of the instrument. Research ethics committee and Health Research Authority approval was waived, since this is a professional staff study only and no duty of care lies with the National Health Service to any of the participants. Conflicts of interest, if any, will be addressed by reassigning functions or replacing participants with relevant conflicts. The results will be disseminated through publication in peer reviewed journals, the funders’ websites, social media and direct contact with guideline development organisations and peer-reviewed journals that publish guidelines.
The purpose of this study was to explore adult women's unique and shared experiences of prodromal myocardial infarction fatigue.
Fatigue is the most prevalent symptom experienced by women in the weeks and months before myocardial infarction. However, dimensions of this fatigue, such as timing, distress, intensity, quality, patterns and associated characteristics have not been established through studies of this symptom. A lack of understanding of the characteristics of myocardial infarction fatigue and the context in which it occurs makes clinical decision‐making difficult.
A qualitative, multiple case study guided by the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms.
Women were purposively enrolled from a large hospital in the Midwestern USA. Semi‐structured, audio‐recorded interviews were conducted during hospitalisation and at 2–3 months postdischarge; women were also provided with a journal. A supplementary interview with family members and electronic health record review also assisted in data triangulation. Analysis was inductive and conducted within and across cases, using coding and categorisation, counting, clustering, visual displays of data and thematic development. The SRQR checklist was used in reporting the study.
Ten women, with a median age of 60, participated. Fatigue was described primarily using the terms tiredness and lack of energy, though some women described generalised weakness and cognitive fog. This fatigue was unusual and a notable change from baseline. Many women described significant difficulties performing activities of daily living due to fatigue.
The findings of this study will advance symptom science and an understanding of prodromal myocardial infarction fatigue. Future instrument development or selection of instruments for quantitative work will be aided by this study.
This study provides a clearer picture of prodromal myocardial infarction fatigue experienced by women, aiding healthcare professionals in understanding and identifying this symptom.
Minority populations in the USA are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular conditions. Reduced responsiveness to clopidogrel among carriers of CYP2C19 variants has been reported in patients with either coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Previous studies have evaluated CYP2C19 genotyping-guided antiplatelet therapy in selected populations; however, this has yet to be tested among Hispanics. Given the paucity of clinical research on CYP2C19 and antiplatelet clinical outcomes in Hispanics, our study will test the safety and efficacy of a genetic-driven treatment algorithm to guide dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in Caribbean Hispanics.
This is a multicentre, prospective, non-randomised clinical trial that proposes an assessment of pharmacogenomic-guided DAPT in post-PCI Caribbean Hispanic patients with ACS or CAD. We will recruit 250 patients to be compared with a matched non-concurrent cohort of 250 clopidogrel-treated patients (standard-of-care). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) such as all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, coronary revascularisation, stent thrombosis and bleedings over 6 months will be the study endpoints. Among the recruited, high-risk patients will be escalated to ticagrelor and low-risk patients will remain on clopidogrel. The primary objective is to determine whether genetic-guided therapy is superior to standard of care. The secondary objective will determine if clopidogrel treatment in low-risk patients is not associated with a higher rate of MACEs compared with escalated antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients. Patients will be enrolled up to the group’s completion.
Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus (protocol # A4070417). The study will be carried out in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice Guidelines. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and controlled access to experimental data will be available.
Pectus excavatum repair is associated with substantial postoperative pain, despite the use of epidural analgesia and other analgesic regimens. Perioperative recorded music interventions have been shown to alleviate pain and anxiety in adults, but evidence for children and adolescents is still lacking. This study protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that evaluates the effects of recorded music interventions on postoperative pain relief in children and adolescents after pectus excavatum repair.
A multicentre randomised controlled trial was set up comparing the effects of perioperative recorded music interventions in addition to standard care with those of standard care only in patients undergoing a Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum repair. One hundred and seventy subjects (12–18 years of age) will be included in three centres in the Netherlands. Patient inclusion has started in November 2018, and is ongoing. The primary outcome is self-reported perceived pain measured on the visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes are anxiety level, analgesics consumption, vital parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, quality of life and cost-effectiveness.
This study is being conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The Medical Ethics Review Board of Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands, has approved this protocol. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed scientific journals and conference presentations.
Commentary on: Becher RD, Murphy TE, Gahbauer, EA. et al. Factors associated with functional recovery among older survivors of major surgery. Ann Surg 2019; Feb 6. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000003233. [Epub ahead of print].
Presurgical frailty status needs to be routinely assessed among the elderly. Comprehensive presurgical and postsurgical care needs to be planned for the frail.
Presurgical frailty status needs to be routinely assessed among the elderly.
Comprehensive presurgical and postsurgical care needs to be planned for the frail.
Worldwide, the population is ageing and in the context of hospital care, the most problematic consequence of this is the clinical condition of frailty.
by Inusa J. Ajene, Fathiya M. Khamis, Barbara van Asch, Gerhard Pietersen, Brenda A. Rasowo, Fidelis L. Ombura, Anne W. Wairimu, Komivi S. Akutse, Mamoudou Sétamou, Samira Mohamed, Sunday EkesiThe Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) is a key pest of Citrus spp. worldwide, as it acts as a vector for “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las)”, the bacterial pathogen associated with the destructive Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. Recent detection of D. citri in Africa and reports of Las-associated HLB in Ethiopia suggest that the citrus industry on the continent is under imminent threat. Endosymbionts and gut bacteria play key roles in the biology of arthropods, especially with regards to vector-pathogen interactions and resistance to antibiotics. Thus, we aim to profile the bacterial genera and to identify antibiotic resistance genes within the microbiome of different populations worldwide of D. citri. The metagenome of D. citri was sequenced using the Oxford Nanopore full-length 16S metagenomics protocol, and the “What’s in my pot” (WIMP) analysis pipeline. Microbial diversity within and between D. citri populations was assessed, and antibiotic resistance genes were identified using the WIMP-ARMA workflow. The most abundant genera were key endosymbionts of D. citri (“Candidatus Carsonella”, “Candidatus Profftella”, and Wolbachia). The Shannon diversity index showed that D. citri from Tanzania had the highest diversity of bacterial genera (1.92), and D. citri from China had the lowest (1.34). The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity showed that China and Kenya represented the most diverged populations, while the populations from Kenya and Tanzania were the least diverged. The WIMP-ARMA analyses generated 48 CARD genes from 13 bacterial species in each of the populations. Spectinomycin resistance genes were the most frequently found, with an average of 65.98% in all the populations. These findings add to the knowledge on the diversity of the African D. citri populations and the probable introduction source of the psyllid in these African countries.
by Jaber S. Alqahtani, Tope Oyelade, Abdulelah M. Aldhahir, Saeed M. Alghamdi, Mater Almehmadi, Abdullah S. Alqahtani, Shumonta Quaderi, Swapna Mandal, John R. HurstBackground
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers.Methods
We systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).Results
In total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%–3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%–14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4–2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03–2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%.Conclusion
Although COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers.
This study was undertaken to learn how predatory journal articles were cited in articles published in legitimate (nonpredatory) nursing journals. The extent of citation and citation patterns were studied.
A two‐phase approach was used.
In Phase 1, 204 articles published in legitimate nursing journals that cited a predatory publication were randomly selected for analysis from a list of 814 articles with predatory journal citations. In Phase 2, the four predatory journal articles that were cited most frequently were analyzed further to examine their citation patterns.
The majority (n = 148, 72.55%) of the articles that cited a predatory publication were research reports. Most commonly, the predatory article was only cited once (n = 117, 61.58%). Most (n = 158, 82.72%) of the predatory articles, though, were used substantively, that is, to provide a basis for the study or methods, describe the results, or explain the findings. The four articles in Phase 2 generated 38 citations in legitimate journals, published from 2011 to 2019, demonstrating persistence in citation. An evaluation of the quality of these articles was mixed.
The results of this study provide an understanding of the use and patterns of citations to predatory articles in legitimate nursing journals. Authors who choose predatory journals as the channel to disseminate their publications devalue the work that publishers, editors, and peer reviewers play in scholarly dissemination. Likewise, those who cite these works are also contributing to the problem of predatory publishing in nursing.
Nurse authors should not publish their work in predatory journals and should avoid citing articles from these journals, which disseminates the content through the scholarly nursing literature.
by Nickolas D. Zaller, Taylor L. Neher, Makenzie Presley, Heather Horton, S. Alexandra Marshall, Melissa J. Zielinski, Lauren Brinkley-RubinsteinIndividuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system continue to be at disproportionate risk for HIV infection, and often have a greater prevalence of substance use and sexual related risk behaviors relative to their non-CJ involved peers. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a once daily antiretroviral medicine, is an evidence-based approach for reducing the risk of contracting HIV but limited data exist regarding the use of PrEP among CJ populations, especially in the U.S. South. This study was conducted at the Pulaski County Regional Detention Facility (PCRDF) in Little Rock, Arkansas (AR), the largest county jail in the state. We explored knowledge about PrEP and HIV, perceptions about PrEP feasibility in both the jail and community settings and barriers to PrEP program implementation, through in-depth qualitative interviews with 21 jail detainees. We purposively sampled individuals based on specific self-reported risk behavior, including sexual risk (both heterosexual and same-sex) and drug related risk (e.g. IDU), among all eligible individuals. We identified five primary themes from the interviews: 1) accessing healthcare during community reentry was a low priority; 2) perception of risk and interaction with people with HIV was low; 3) there are many barriers to disclosing HIV risk behaviors in jail settings; 4) knowledge of PrEP is low but willingness to use is high; and 5) multiple barriers exist to PrEP uptake post-release. Our findings are contextually unique and therefore have important implications for future implementation of PrEP access either within jail settings or linkage to PrEP post release.
Chronic gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions of childhood can have long-lasting physical, psychosocial and economic effects on children and their families. Alterations in diet and intestinal and respiratory microbiomes may have important implications for physical and psychosocial health. Diet influences the intestinal microbiome and should be considered when exploring disease-specific alterations. The concepts of gut-brain and gut-lung axes provide novel perspectives for examining chronic childhood disease(s). We established the ‘
The EARTH programme provides a framework for a series of prospective, longitudinal, controlled, observational studies (comprised of individual substudies), conducted at an Australian tertiary paediatric hospital (the methodology is applicable to other settings). Children with a chronic gastrointestinal and/or respiratory condition will be compared with age and gender matched healthy controls (HC) across a 12-month period. The following will be collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months: (i) stool, (ii) oropharyngeal swab/sputum, (iii) semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, (iv) details of disease symptomatology, (v) health-related quality of life and (vi) psychosocial factors. Data on the intestinal and respiratory microbiomes and diet will be compared between children with a condition and HC. Correlations between dietary intake (energy, macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients), intestinal and respiratory microbiomes within each group will be explored. Data on disease symptomatology, quality of life and psychosocial factors will be compared between condition and HC cohorts.
Results will be hypothesis-generating and direct future focussed studies. There is future potential for direct translation into clinical care, as diet is a highly modifiable factor.
Ethics approval: Sydney Children’s Hospitals Network Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/18/SCHN/26). Results will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.
In April 2019, 14 children were diagnosed with HIV infection by a private healthcare provider in Larkana district, Sindh province, Pakistan. Over the next 3 months, 930 individuals were diagnosed with HIV, >80% below 16 years, the largest ever outbreak of HIV in children in Pakistan. In this protocol paper, we describe research methods for assessing likely modes of HIV transmission in this outbreak and investigate spatial and molecular epidemiology.
A matched case–control study will be conducted with 406 cases recruited. Cases will be children aged below 16 years registered for care at the HIV treatment centre at Shaikh Zayed Children Hospital in Larkana City. Controls will be children who are HIV-uninfected (confirmed by a rapid HIV test) matched 1:1 by age (within 1 year), sex and neighbourhood. Following written informed consent from the guardian, a structured questionnaire will be administered to collect data on sociodemographic indices and exposure to risk factors for parenteral, vertical and sexual (only among those aged above 10 years) HIV transmission. A blood sample will be collected for hepatitis B and C serology (cases and controls) and HIV lineage studies (cases only). Mothers of participants will be tested for HIV to investigate the possibility of mother-to-child transmission. Conditional logistic regression will be used to investigate the association of a priori defined risk factors with HIV infection. Phylogenetic analyses will be conducted. Global positioning system coordinates of participants’ addresses will be collected to investigate concordance between the genetic and spatial epidemiology.
Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Review Committee of the Aga Khan University, Karachi. Study results will be shared with Sindh and National AIDS Control Programs, relevant governmental and non-governmental organisations, presented at national and international research conferences and published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.
The world’s older population continues to grow at an unprecedented rate. An ageing population poses a great challenge to our healthcare system that requires new tool to tackle the complexity of health services as well as the increasing expenses. Mobile health applications (mHealth app) is seen to have the potential to address these challenges, alleviating burdens on the healthcare system and enhance the quality of life for older adults. Despite the numerous benefits of mHealth apps, relatively little is known about whether older adults perceive that these apps confer such benefits. Their perspectives towards the use of mobile applications for health-related purposes have also been little studied. Therefore, in this paper, we outline our scoping review protocol to systematically review literature specific to older adults’ willingness, perceived barriers and motivators towards the use of mobile applications to monitor and manage their health.
Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review methodology framework will guide the conduct of this scoping review. The search strategy will involve electronic databases including PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect, in addition to grey literature sources and hand-searching of reference lists. Two reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion. Data will be charted and sorted through an iterative process by the research team. The extracted data will undergo a descriptive analysis and simple quantitative analysis will be conducted using descriptive statistics. Engagement with relevant stakeholders will be carried out to gain more insights into our data from different perspectives.
Since the data used are from publicly available sources, this study does not require ethical approval. Results will be disseminated through academic journals, conferences and seminars. We anticipate that our findings will aid technology developers and health professionals working in the area of ageing and rehabilitation.
Overweight/obesity among women is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, postpartum haemorrhage, low birth weight, congenital malformation and neonatal deaths. Although the magnitude of overweight and obesity among the reproductive age group women is a common problem in Ethiopia, there are limited studies that determine the associated factors of overweight and obesity at the national level. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the determinant factors of overweight/obesity among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia.
Cross-sectional study design.
Non-pregnant women aged 15–49 years.
The present study used the Ethiopia Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) data for 2016. A total of 10 938 non-pregnant reproductive age group women were included in the analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression were performed to determine the determinants of overweight and obesity among women in Ethiopia. The OR with a 95% CI was estimated for potential determinants included in the final model.
Those women with secondary education (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.48, 1.01, 2.18), higher education (AOR=1.78, 1.13, 2.81), richer (AOR=1.85, 1.15, 2.98) and richest wealth index (AOR=3.23, 1.98, 5.29), urban residence (AOR=4.46, 2.89, 6.87), married (AOR=1.79, 1.21, 2.64), widowed (AOR=2.42, 1.41, 4.15), divorced (AOR=1.84, 1.13, 3.00), aged 25–34 years (AOR=2.04, 1.43, 2.89), 35–44 years (AOR=2.79, 1.99, 3.93) and 45–49 years (AOR=2.62, 1.54, 4.45) had higher odds of developing overweight and obesity.
Women with higher education level, high wealth status, older age, formerly married and those urban dwellers had higher odds of overweight and obesity. Therefore, regular physical activity, reducing consumption of fat/energy-dense food as well as modifying the mode of transportation is recommended.
by Shiying Hao, Jin You, Lin Chen, Hui Zhao, Yujuan Huang, Le Zheng, Lu Tian, Ivana Maric, Xin Liu, Tian Li, Ylayaly K. Bianco, Virginia D. Winn, Nima Aghaeepour, Brice Gaudilliere, Martin S. Angst, Xin Zhou, Yu-Ming Li, Lihong Mo, Ronald J. Wong, Gary M. Shaw, David K. Stevenson, Harvey J. Cohen, Doff B. Mcelhinney, Karl G. Sylvester, Xuefeng B. LingBackground
Placental protein expression plays a crucial role during pregnancy. We hypothesized that: (1) circulating levels of pregnancy-associated, placenta-related proteins throughout gestation reflect the temporal progression of the uncomplicated, full-term pregnancy, and can effectively estimate gestational ages (GAs); and (2) preeclampsia (PE) is associated with disruptions in these protein levels early in gestation; and can identify impending PE. We also compared gestational profiles of proteins in the human and mouse, using pregnant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) heterozygote (Het) mice, a mouse model reflecting PE-like symptoms.Methods
Serum levels of placenta-related proteins–leptin (LEP), chorionic somatomammotropin hormone like 1 (CSHL1), elabela (ELA), activin A, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), and placental growth factor (PlGF)–were quantified by ELISA in blood serially collected throughout human pregnancies (20 normal subjects with 66 samples, and 20 subjects who developed PE with 61 samples). Multivariate analysis was performed to estimate the GA in normal pregnancy. Mean-squared errors of GA estimations were used to identify impending PE. The human protein profiles were then compared with those in the pregnant HO-1 Het mice.Results
An elastic net-based gestational dating model was developed (R2 = 0.76) and validated (R2 = 0.61) using serum levels of the 6 proteins measured at various GAs from women with normal uncomplicated pregnancies. In women who developed PE, the model was not (R2 = -0.17) associated with GA. Deviations from the model estimations were observed in women who developed PE (P = 0.01). The model developed with 5 proteins (ELA excluded) performed similarly from sera from normal human (R2 = 0.68) and WT mouse (R2 = 0.85) pregnancies. Disruptions of this model were observed in both human PE-associated (R2 = 0.27) and mouse HO-1 Het (R2 = 0.30) pregnancies. LEP outperformed sFlt-1 and PlGF in differentiating impending PE at early human and late mouse GAs.Conclusions
Serum placenta-related protein profiles are temporally regulated throughout normal pregnancies and significantly disrupted in women who develop PE. LEP changes earlier than the well-established biomarkers (sFlt-1 and PlGF). There may be evidence of a causative action of HO-1 deficiency in LEP upregulation in a PE-like murine model.