To describe and quantify the dengue-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of residents in an urban shantytown in Lima, Peru.
A cross-sectional survey of adults between 18 and 80 years living in approximately 120 blocks in Oasis, an urban shantytown situated in the low-to-middle income district of Villa El Salvador in Southern Lima. The survey was adapted from an existing survey previously used in Iquitos, Peru, and included questions relating to knowledge of dengue symptoms, transmission, prevention and current mosquito control practices.
A total of 240 surveys were completed with 80% of respondents being female and approximately 50% of all respondents describing themselves as housewives.
Although 97.9% of respondents had heard of dengue, only 6.2% of people knew someone who had experienced the disease. Approximately half (54.2%) of the respondents knew dengue was transmitted by mosquitoes and 51.7% were able to identify fever and one other correct symptom of dengue. Female sex was significantly associated with greater symptom knowledge (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.72) and prevention knowledge (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.21). Past or current higher education attendance was significantly associated with symptom knowledge (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.44) and transmission knowledge (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.69 to 7.57). Knowledge of dengue was not significantly associated with carrying out practices to control mosquitoes (OR 1.76, 95% CI 0.87 to 3.54).
This population demonstrated baseline dengue knowledge. However, this was incomplete and substantially less when compared with endemic areas. Given the sporadic nature of dengue transmission in Lima, it is not surprising that knowledge of the disease was not associated with carrying out practices to reduce mosquitoes. However, as dengue transmission in Lima is likely to increase, understanding how best to improve public knowledge of the disease and how to translate this into appropriate community action will be a key public health consideration.
Vision impairment (VI) places a burden on individuals, health systems and society in general. In order to support the case for investing in eye health services, an updated cost of illness study that measures the global impact of VI is necessary. To perform such a study, a systematic review of the literature is needed. Here we outline the protocol for a systematic review to describe and summarise the costs associated with VI and its major causes.
We will systematically search in Medline (Ovid) and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database which includes the National Health Service Economics Evaluation Database. No language or geographical restriction will be applied. Additional literature will be identified by reviewing the references in the included studies and by contacting field experts. Grey literature will be considered. The review will include any study published from 1 January 2000 to November 2019 that provides information about costs of illness, burden of disease and/or loss of well-being in participants with VI due to an unspecified cause or due to one of the seven leading causes globally.
Two reviewers will independently screen studies and extract relevant data from included studies. Methodological quality of economic studies will be assessed based on the British Medical Journal checklist for economic submissions adapted to costs of illness studies. This protocol has been prepared following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis protocols and has been published prospectively in Open Science Framework.
Formal ethical approval is not required, as primary data will not be collected in this review. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, stakeholder meetings and inclusion in the ongoing Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health.
https://osf.io/9au3w (DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/6F8VM).
Although several imaging options are available for diagnosing syndesmotic injury, a fundamental question that guides treatment remains unanswered. Syndesmotic instability is still challenging to diagnose correctly, and syndesmotic disruption and true syndesmotic instability should be differentiated. Currently, imaging tests quickly diagnose severe syndesmotic instability but have difficulty in diagnosing mild and moderate cases. This study aims to investigate which strategy among an existing CT index test and two new add-on CT index tests with stress manoeuvres more accurately diagnoses syndesmotic instability. The secondary objective is to investigate the participants’ disability outcomes by applying the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure questionnaire.
This study of a diagnostic accuracy test will consecutively select individuals older than 18 years with a clinical diagnosis of a suspected acute syndesmotic injury. Three strategies of the CT index test (one in the neutral position and two with stress) will examine the accuracy using MRI as the reference standard. The external rotation and dorsiflexion of the ankle will guide the stress manoeuvres. A comparison of measurements between the injured syndesmosis and the uninjured contralateral side of the same individual will investigate the syndesmotic instability, by evaluating the rotational and translational relationships between the fibula and tibia. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and likelihood analyses will compare the diagnostic accuracies of the strategies.
The Internal Review Board and the Einstein Ethics Committee approved this study (registered number 62100016.5.0000.0071). All participants will receive an oral description of the study’s aim, and the choice to participate will be free and voluntary. Participants will be enrolled after they sign the written informed consent form, including the terms of confidentiality. The results will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals and social media.
ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT04095598; preresults).
To identify the risk areas of deaths due to unspecified pneumonia and tuberculosis (TB) in children, and to identify if there is a relationship between these events with higher TB incidence and social determinants.
Ecological study carried out in Brazil. All cases of TB or unspecified pneumonia deaths in children under 5 years of age reported between 2006 and 2016 were included and collected through Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (Brazil’s electronic database). The Spatial Scan Statistics was used to identify areas at higher risk of dying from this event. The spatial association was verified through the Getis-Ord techniques. The Bivariate Moran Global Index was used to verify the spatial autocorrelation between the two events. To identify the association of TB and pneumonia deaths with endemic areas of pulmonary TB and social determinants, four explanatory statistical models were identified.
A total of 21 391 cases of pneumonia and 238 cases of TB were identified. Spatial scanning analysis enabled the detection of four clusters of risk for TB (relative risk, RR, between 3.30 and 18.18) and 22 clusters for pneumonia (RR between 1.38 and 5.24). The spatial association of the events was confirmed (z-score 3.74 and 64.34) and spatial autocorrelation between events (Moran Index:0.031 (p=0.001)). The zero-inflated negative binomial distribution was chosen, and an association for both events was identified with the TB incidence rate (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.85 to 9.84; OR 6.63, 95% CI 5.62 to 7.81), with the Gini Index (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.82; OR 4.22, 95% CI 3.63 to4.92). Primary care coverage showed an inverse association for both events (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.17; OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) for pneumonia). Finally, a family that benefited from the Bolsa Família Programme had an inverse association for deaths from pneumonia (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.25).
The results do not just contribute to reduce mortality in children, but mainly contribute to prevent premature deaths through identification of critical areas in Brazil, which is crucial to qualify health surveillance services.
Idiopathic acute pancreatitis (IAP) remains a dilemma for physicians as it is uncertain whether patients with IAP may actually have an occult aetiology. It is unclear to what extent additional diagnostic modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) are warranted after a first episode of IAP in order to uncover this aetiology. Failure to timely determine treatable aetiologies delays appropriate treatment and might subsequently cause recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the aim of the Pancreatitis of Idiopathic origin: Clinical added value of endoscopic UltraSonography (PICUS) Study is to determine the value of routine EUS in determining the aetiology of pancreatitis in patients with a first episode of IAP.
PICUS is designed as a multicentre prospective cohort study of 106 patients with a first episode of IAP after complete standard diagnostic work-up, in whom a diagnostic EUS will be performed. Standard diagnostic work-up will include a complete personal and family history, laboratory tests including serum alanine aminotransferase, calcium and triglyceride levels and imaging by transabdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography after clinical recovery from the acute pancreatitis episode. The primary outcome measure is detection of aetiology by EUS. Secondary outcome measures include pancreatitis recurrence rate, severity of recurrent pancreatitis, readmission, additional interventions, complications, length of hospital stay, quality of life, mortality and costs, during a follow-up period of 12 months.
PICUS is conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and Guideline for Good Clinical Practice. Five medical ethics review committees assessed PICUS (Medical Ethics Review Committee of Academic Medical Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Radboud University Medical Center, Erasmus Medical Center and Maastricht University Medical Center). The results will be submitted for publication in an international peer-reviewed journal.
Netherlands Trial Registry (NL7066). Prospectively registered.
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are considered a collection of musculoskeletal conditions involving the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint and associated structures. The myogenous group appears to represent the most frequently diagnosed category. In the context of a multimodal approach, splint therapy and musculoskeletal physiotherapy are often considered as a preferred therapy. The purpose of this study will be to investigate the effects of musculoskeletal physiotherapy combined with occlusal splint and education versus occlusal splint and education alone in the treatment of chronic myogenous TMD on pain and mandibular range of motion.
All consecutive adults complaining of TMDs presented to the Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences of the University of Bologna will be considered eligible. Inclusion criteria shall be based on the presence of myogenous TMDs, as diagnosed through clinical examination in reference to the international diagnostic criteria of TMDs. Randomisation, concealed allocation, blinded assessment and intention-to-treat analysis will be employed. The splint therapy will consist of the use of the splint every night and concurrent delivery of an educational programme; the protocol shall have a duration of three consecutive months. The combined musculoskeletal physiotherapy, splint therapy and education will additionally consist of manual therapy techniques and exercise; such protocol shall consist of a duration of three consecutive months, inclusive of 10 sessions for the enhanced elements. All outcome measures will be collected at baseline, after treatment and at a 6 months follow-up.
Ethical approval has been obtained from the Independent Ethic Committee in Clinical Research of AUSL Bologna-Italy (47/2018/SPER/AUSLBO). Pursuant to applicable rules,we will obtain informed consent from each participant and collect data anonymously to maintain privacy. Results will be disseminated to clinicians and researchers through peer-reviewed publications and conferences.
The Oxford Parkinson’s Disease Centre (OPDC) Discovery Cohort MRI substudy (OPDC-MRI) collects high-quality multimodal brain MRI together with deep longitudinal clinical phenotyping in patients with Parkinson’s, at-risk individuals and healthy elderly participants. The primary aim is to detect pathological changes in brain structure and function, and develop, together with the clinical data, biomarkers to stratify, predict and chart progression in early-stage Parkinson’s and at-risk individuals.
Participants are recruited from the OPDC Discovery Cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study. Baseline MRI data are currently available for 290 participants: 119 patients with early idiopathic Parkinson’s, 15 Parkinson’s patients with pathogenic mutations of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 or glucocerebrosidase (GBA) genes, 68 healthy controls and 87 individuals at risk of Parkinson’s (asymptomatic carriers of GBA mutation and patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-RBD).
Differences in brain structure in early Parkinson’s were found to be subtle, with small changes in the shape of the globus pallidus and evidence of alterations in microstructural integrity in the prefrontal cortex that correlated with performance on executive function tests. Brain function, as assayed with resting fMRI yielded more substantial differences, with basal ganglia connectivity reduced in early Parkinson’sand RBD. Imaging of the substantia nigra with the more recent adoption of sequences sensitive to iron and neuromelanin content shows promising results in identifying early signs of Parkinsonian disease.
Ongoing studies include the integration of multimodal MRI measures to improve discrimination power. Follow-up clinical data are now accumulating and will allow us to correlate baseline imaging measures to clinical disease progression. Follow-up MRI scanning started in 2015 and is currently ongoing, providing the opportunity for future longitudinal imaging analyses with parallel clinical phenotyping.
To gain insight into the request, use and associated factors of involuntary treatment in people with dementia (PwD) receiving professional home care in the Netherlands and Belgium.
Most of the PwD remain living at home as long as possible. Due to complex care needs, this can result in an increased risk for care provided against the wishes of the client and/or to which the client resists, referred to as involuntary treatment.
Secondary data analyses of two cross‐sectional surveys.
Dementia case managers and district nurses filled in a questionnaire for each PwD in their caseload. This study included data of 627 PwD receiving professional home care in the Netherlands and 217 in Belgium. The same methodology (questionnaire and variables) was used in both samples. Descriptive statistics and multi‐level logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The study adhered to the STROBE checklist.
More than half of the PwD (50.7%) living at home received involuntary treatment (Belgium 68.2% and the Netherlands 44.7%). Nonconsensual care (82.7%) was the most common, followed by psychotropic medication (40.7%) and physical restraints (18.5%). Involuntary treatment use was associated with living alone, greater ADL dependency, lower cognitive ability, higher family caregiver burden and receiving home care in Belgium versus the Netherlands. Involuntary treatment was most often requested by family caregivers.
Involuntary treatment is often used in PwD, which is in line with previous findings indicating dementia as a risk factor for involuntary treatment use. More research is needed to gain insight into variations in prevalence across other countries, which factors influence these differences and what countries can learn from each other regarding prevention of involuntary treatment.
To provide person‐centred care, it is important to study ways to prevent involuntary treatment in PwD and to stimulate dialogue between professional and family caregivers for alternative interventions.
Since the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic, the spread of the new coronavirus has been the focus of attention of scientists, governments and populations. One of the main concerns is the impact of this pandemic on health outcomes, mainly on mental health. Even though there are a few empirical studies on COVID-19 and mental health, so far, there is no systematic review about the impact of COVID-19 on mental health of young people and adults yet. We aim to critically synthesise the scientific evidence about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young people and adults.
A systematic review will be performed through eight databases: MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online), ISI-of-Knowledge, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database), SCOPUS, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), PsycINFO (Psychology Information) and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), from inception until 30 June 2020. No restriction regarding the publication date, setting or languages will be considered. Preliminary search strategies were carried out on 29 March 2020 and will be updated in June 2020. The primary outcomes will be the prevalence and the severity of psychological symptoms in young people and adults (>18 years old) resulting from the impact of COVID-19 pandemic. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Pooled standardised mean differences and 95% CIs will be calculated. The risk of bias of the observational studies will be assessed through the Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies (MINORS). Additionally, if sufficient data are available, a meta-analysis will be conducted. Heterogeneity between the studies will be determined by the I2 statistics. Subgroup analyses will also be performed. Publication bias will be checked with funnel plots and Egger’s test. Heterogeneity will be explored by random-effects analysis.
Ethical assessment was not required. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication and will be presented at conferences related to this field.
The number of inconclusive physical rehabilitation randomised controlled trials for patients with critical illness is increasing. Evidence suggests critical illness patient subgroups may exist that benefit from targeted physical rehabilitation interventions that could improve their recovery trajectory. We aim to identify critical illness patient subgroups that respond to physical rehabilitation and map recovery trajectories according to physical function and quality of life outcomes. Additionally, the utilisation of healthcare resources will be examined for subgroups identified.
This is an individual participant data meta-analysis protocol. A systematic literature review was conducted for randomised controlled trials that delivered additional physical rehabilitation for patients with critical illness during their acute hospital stay, assessed chronic disease burden, with a minimum follow-up period of 3 months measuring performance-based physical function and health-related quality of life outcomes. From 2178 records retrieved in the systematic literature review, four eligible trials were identified by two independent reviewers. Principal investigators of eligible trials were invited to contribute their data to this individual participant data meta-analysis. Risk of bias will be assessed (Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomised trials). Participant and trial characteristics, interventions and outcomes data of included studies will be summarised. Meta-analyses will entail a one-stage model, which will account for the heterogeneity across and the clustering between studies. Multiple imputation using chained equations will be used to account for the missing data.
This individual participant data meta-analysis does not require ethical review as anonymised participant data will be used and no new data collected. Additionally, eligible trials were granted approval by institutional review boards or research ethics committees and informed consent was provided for participants. Data sharing agreements are in place permitting contribution of data. The study findings will be disseminated at conferences and through peer-reviewed publications.
We aimed to develop and internally validate a measure of multimorbidity burden using data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA).
Data from 40 264 CLSA participants (52% men) aged 45–85 years (a mean of 63 years) were analysed. We used logistic regression models to predict overnight hospitalisation in the last 12 months in the development dataset (random two-thirds of the total) and used these to construct 10 multimorbidity indices (5 models, each treated with and without an age interaction term). Thirty-five chronic conditions were considered for inclusion in these models, in addition to age and sex. We assessed predictive and convergent validity for these 10 different multimorbidity indices in the validation dataset (remaining one-third of the total).
The absolute count of chronic conditions plus an interaction with age, displayed strong calibration properties, outperforming other candidate indices. Discrimination was modest for all of the indices that we internally validated, with C-statistics ranging from 0.66 to 0.68. The indices showed weak correlations (ie, convergent validity) with satisfaction with life, functional disability and mental health (absolute Pearson’s correlation coefficients ranging from 0.11 to 0.30) but generally moderate correlations with self-rated general health (0.32–0.45).
We investigated alternative methods to measure the multimorbidity burden of individuals, tailored to the CLSA. Our findings show that an absolute count of conditions, along with an age interaction term, has the strongest calibration for overnight hospitalisation in the last 12 months. The utility of an age interaction term in measuring multimorbidity burden may be applicable to the study of chronic disease in cohorts other than the CLSA.
Disability discrimination is linked with poorer well-being cross-sectionally. The aim of this study was to explore prospective associations between disability discrimination and well-being.
Prospective cohort study.
The United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study.
Data were from 871 individuals with a self-reported physical, cognitive or sensory disability.
Depression was assessed in 2009/10. Psychological distress, mental functioning, life satisfaction and self-rated health were assessed in 2009/10 and 2013/14.
Data were analysed using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, household income, education, ethnicity and impairment category. Perceived disability discrimination was reported by 117 (13.4%) participants. Cross-sectionally, discrimination was associated with depression (OR=5.40, 95% CI 3.25 to 8.97) fair/poor self-rated health (OR=2.05; 95% CI 1.19 to 3.51), greater psychological distress (B=3.28, 95% CI 2.41 to 4.14), poorer mental functioning (B=–7.35; 95% CI –9.70 to –5.02) and life satisfaction (B=–1.27, 95% CI –1.66 to –0.87). Prospectively, discrimination was associated with increased psychological distress (B=2.88, 95% CI 1.39 to 4.36) and poorer mental functioning (B=–5.12; 95% CI –8.91 to –1.34), adjusting for baseline scores.
Perceived disability-related discrimination is linked with poorer well-being. These findings underscore the need for interventions to combat disability discrimination.
by Matthew R. Allen, Joseph Wallace, Erin McNerney, Jeffry Nyman, Keith Avin, Neal Chen, Sharon MoeIndividuals with chronic kidney disease have elevated levels of oxidative stress and are at a significantly higher risk of skeletal fracture. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in bone and compromise mechanical properties, are known to be driven in part by oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to study effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on reducing oxidative stress and improving various bone parameters, most specifically mechanical properties, in an animal model of progressive CKD. Male Cy/+ (CKD) rats and unaffected littermates were untreated (controls) or treated with NAC (80 mg/kg, IP) from 30 to 35 weeks of age. Endpoint measures included serum biochemistries, assessments of systemic oxidative stress, bone morphology, and mechanical properties, and AGE levels in the bone. CKD rats had the expected phenotype that included low kidney function, elevated parathyroid hormone, higher cortical porosity, and compromised mechanical properties. NAC treatment had mixed effects on oxidative stress markers, significantly reducing TBARS (a measure of lipid peroxidation) while not affecting 8-OHdG (a marker of DNA oxidation) levels. AGE levels in the bone were elevated in CKD animals and were reduced with NAC although this did not translate to a benefit in bone mechanical properties. In conclusion, NAC failed to significantly improve bone architecture/geometry/mechanical properties in our rat model of progressive CKD.
We estimated the effect of an employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) scheme on healthcare utilisation of medically trained providers and reduction of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure among ready-made garment (RMG) workers.
We used a case–control study design with cross-sectional preintervention and postintervention surveys.
The study was conducted among workers of seven purposively selected RMG factories in Shafipur, Gazipur in Bangladesh.
In total, 1924 RMG workers (480 from the insured and 482 from the uninsured, in each period) were surveyed from insured and uninsured RMG factories, respectively, in the preintervention (October 2013) and postintervention (April 2015) period.
We tested the effect of a pilot ESHI scheme which was implemented for 1 year.
The outcome measures were utilisation of medically trained providers and reduction of OOP expenditure among RMG workers. We estimated difference-in-difference (DiD) and applied two-part regression model to measure the association between healthcare utilisation, OOP payments and ESHI scheme membership while controlling for the socioeconomic characteristics of workers.
The ESHI scheme increased healthcare utilisation of medically trained providers by 26.1% (DiD=26.1; p
The ESHI scheme significantly increased utilisation of medically trained providers among RMG workers. However, it has no significant effect on OOP expenditure. It can be recommended that an educational intervention be provided to RMG workers to improve their healthcare-seeking behaviours and increase their utilisation of ESHI-designated healthcare providers while keeping OOP payments low.
by Bjarne K. Jacobsen, Marita Melhus, Kirsti Kvaløy, Susanna R. A. Siri, Vilde Lehne Michalsen, Ann Ragnhild BroderstadThe obesity epidemic is dynamic with varying secular trends and differences between countries and ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to describe the age- and sex-specific longitudinal changes in weight and waist circumference in a rural Norwegian population with a high proportion of the indigenous Sami population. Based on two population-based surveys, SAMINOR 1 (2003–2004) and SAMINOR 2 (2012–2014), we present longitudinal changes in weight and waist circumference according to age at baseline in the SAMINOR 1 Survey and sex during the 10-year period. The analyses included 1538 men and 1958 women aged 36 to 69 at baseline (birth year 1934 to 1967). Forty-one percent of the population were Sami. Both weight and waist circumference were measured. The mean weight increased 0.8 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.1) in men and 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval: 0, 0.5) in women. In both men and women, younger individuals gained significantly more weight during the 10-year follow-up than older participants (p
As cancer treatments may impact on fertility, a high priority for young patients with breast cancer is access to evidence-based, personalised information for them and their healthcare providers to guide treatment and fertility-related decisions prior to cancer treatment. Current tools to predict fertility outcomes after breast cancer treatments are imprecise and do not offer individualised prediction. To address the gap, we are developing a novel personalised infertility risk prediction tool (FoRECAsT) for premenopausal patients with breast cancer that considers current reproductive status, planned chemotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy to determine likely post-treatment infertility. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of implementing this FoRECAsT tool into clinical practice by exploring the barriers and facilitators of its use among patients and healthcare providers.
A cross-sectional exploratory study is being conducted using semistructured in-depth telephone interviews with 15–20 participants each from the following groups: (1) premenopausal patients with breast cancer younger than 40, diagnosed within last 5 years, (2) breast surgeons, (3) breast medical oncologists, (4) breast care nurses (5) fertility specialists and (6) fertility preservation nurses. Patients with breast cancer are being recruited from the joint Breast Service of three affiliated institutions of Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia—Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital and Royal Women’s Hospital, and clinicians are being recruited from across Australia. Interviews are being audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and imported into qualitative data analysis software to facilitate data management and analyses.
The study protocol has been approved by Melbourne Health Human Research Ethics Committee, Australia (HREC number: 2017.163). Confidentiality and privacy are maintained at every stage of the study. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed scholarly and scientific journals, national and international conference presentations, social media, broadcast media, print media, internet and various community/stakeholder engagement activities.
To analyse the association of sedentary behaviour patterns with dietary and lifestyle habits among public school teachers.
A sample of 245 teachers (186 women and 59 men) with mean age of 45.2 (±10.4) were randomly selected from public schools.
Sedentary behaviour was assessed by hours spent watching television, computer and cellphone/tablet use and in sitting position. Sedentary breaks were reported in a Likert scale in domains of work and leisure time. Dietary habits were assessed by weekly consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, fried foods, sweets, grains, cereals, white meat, soft drinks and snacks. Physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status were assessed by using questionnaires.
The prevalence of high sedentary behaviour, high sedentary breaks at work and at leisure was 57.9%, 67.7% and 70.2% in the sample, respectively. No relationship was observed of high sedentary behaviour with dietary and lifestyle habits in adjusted analysis. However, high sedentary breaks at work were associated with high consumption of dairy products (OR=1.93 (CI 1.07 to 3.51)) and cereals (OR=2.49 (CI 1.05 to 5.92)) and with being high physically active (OR=2.57 (CI 1.14 to 5.77)). High sedentary breaks at leisure time were associated with high consumption of fruits (OR=2.33 (CI 1.28 to 4.23)) and vegetables (OR=1.91 (CI 1.05 to 3.49)) and with be high physically active (OR=2.34 (CI 1.03 to 5.35)). High sedentary breaks were associated with better dietary habits even among teachers with high sedentary behaviour.
High sedentary breaks were associated with better dietary habits and with high levels of physical activity among public school teachers, even those with high sedentary behaviour.
Physical activity can prevent a wide range of diseases, including highly prevalent conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and associated cardiometabolic disorders. Numerous guidelines for the prescription of physical activity and exercise to promote general health and prevent disease are released each year, but the quality of these guidelines is currently unknown. This systematic review and critical appraisal of physical activity and exercise guidelines aims to summarise the current status and quality of these guidelines to provide suggestions to improve the development of future guidelines in this area.
We will conduct a systematic review of guidelines in Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Daily, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus databases published from database 2000 through 23 October 2019, written in English for the use of physical activity and exercise for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease and related risk factors in otherwise healthy individuals. We will also search the grey literature for additional eligible documents. We will use the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool to assess the quality of eligible recommendations from all included guidelines, as well as perform exploratory analyses on guideline development variables.
As a protocol for the review and critical appraisal of published documents, no potential ethical considerations are discussed. The protocol will guide the development of the review, which will be disseminated to relevant journals for publication.
The effects of interventions targeting weight loss on physical health are well described, yet the evidence for mental health is less clear. It is essential to better understand the impact of weight management interventions on mental health to optimise care and minimise risk of harm. We will assess the effect of behavioural weight management interventions on mental health in adults with overweight and obesity.
The systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. We will include behavioural weight management interventions with a diet and/or physical activity component focusing on weight loss for adults with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs will be the only eligible study designs. Outcomes of interest will be related to mental health. The following databases were searched from inception to 07 May 2019: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane database (CENTRAL), PsycINFO, ASSIA, AMED and CINAHL. The search strategy was based on four concepts: (1) adults, defined as ≥18 years, with overweight/obesity, defined as BMI ≥25kg/m², (2) weight management interventions, (3) mental health outcomes and (4) study design. The search was restricted to English-language published papers, with no other restrictions applied. Two stage screening for eligibility will be completed by two independent reviewers, with two independent reviewers completing data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Data permitting, a random-effects meta-analysis of outcomes, subgroup analyses and meta-regression will be conducted. If not appropriate, narrative synthesis and ‘levels of evidence’ assessment will be completed.
Ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. The completed systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal, at conferences and contribute towards the lead author’s PhD thesis.