To determinate the prevalence and correlates of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CMM), and their cross-country variation among individuals with hypertension residing in rural communities in South Asia.
A cross-sectional study.
Rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
A total of 2288 individuals with hypertension aged ≥40 years from the ongoing Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation- Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka clinical trial.
CMM was defined as the presence of ≥2 of the conditions: diabetes, chronic kidney disease, heart disease and stroke. Logistic regression was done to evaluate the correlates of CMM.
About 25.4% (95% CI 23.6% to 27.2%) of the hypertensive individuals had CMM. Factors positively associated with CMM included residing in Bangladesh (OR 3.42, 95% CI 2.52 to 4.65) or Sri Lankan (3.73, 95% CI 2.48 to 5.61) versus in Pakistan, advancing age (2.33, 95% CI 1.59 to 3.40 for 70 years and over vs 40–49 years), higher waist circumference (2.15, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.25) for Q2–Q3 and 2.14, 95% CI 1.50 to 3.06 for Q3 and above), statin use (2.43, 95% CI 1.84 to 3.22), and higher levels of triglyceride (1.01, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.02 per 5 mg/dL increase). A lower odds of CMM was associated with being physically active (0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.97). A weak inverted J-shaped association between International Wealth Index and CMM was found (p for non-linear=0.058), suggesting higher risk in the middle than higher or lower socioeconomic strata.
CMM is highly prevalent in rural South Asians affecting one in four individuals with hypertension. There is an urgent need for strategies to concomitantly manage hypertension, cardiometabolic comorbid conditions and associated determinants in South Asia.
This study was conducted to assess current situation of medicines shortages in Pakistan and to identify its impact, reasons and possible solutions to overcome the barriers.
A qualitative study.
The study was conducted between May 2018 and July 2018 in three cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Karachi and Bahawalpur, depending on the availability of most relevant key informants.
Health regulators, pharmaceutical manufacturers, pharmaceutical distributors and pharmacists.
Study primarily explored current situation, reasons and potential solutions of medicines shortages in Pakistan. Secondary outcome was the issue of particular brand shortage.
Semistructured interviews were conducted. Sample size was determined by using saturation point criteria. Convenient sampling techniques were used to recruit the participants. The interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.
A total of 41 stakeholders including 12 health regulators, 6 pharmaceutical manufacturers, 8 pharmaceutical distributors and 15 pharmacists participated in this study. Data analysis yielded 4 themes, 16 subthemes, 51 categories. Essential and life-saving medicines were in short supply. The major reasons of short supply of medicines were active pharmaceutical ingredient and raw material availability issues, lack of traditional distribution system and sudden demand fluctuation. Among proposed solutions, three most common were the facilitation and regulation of manufacturers, reasonable price fixation and improvements in the inventory control system.
Medicines were short in supply, and this may have clinical and financial impact on the patients in Pakistan. There were multiple and complex reasons of medicines shortages. Mandatory government leadership is required to resolve the issue on priority basis for improving the access of medicines to the patients.
To assess the trends concerning utilisation of maternal and child health (MCH) services before, during and after the Ebola outbreak, quantifying the contribution of a reorganised referral system (RS).
A prospective observational study of MCH services.
Pujehun district in Sierra Leone, 77 community health facilities and 1 hospital from 2012 to 2017.
MCH utililization was evaluated by assessing: (1) institutional deliveries, Cesarean-sections, paediatric and maternity admissions and deaths, and major direct obstetric complications (MDOCs), at hospital level; (2) antenatal care (ANC) 1 and 4, institutional delivery and family planning, at community level. Contribution of a strengthened RS was also measured.
At hospital level, there is a significant difference between trends Ebola versus pre-Ebola for maternal admissions (7, 95% CI 4 to 11, p
A stronger health system compared with other districts in Sierra Leone and a strengthened RS enabled health facilities in Pujehun to maintain service provision and uptake during and after the Ebola epidemic.
To explore the separate and joint associations of childhood adversities and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism as risk factors for substance use disorders among adults.
Retrospective case-control study.
Cases from the substance unit and controls from a representative sample of the adult general population in the metropolitan area of Murcia (Spain).
Cases were defined as outpatients 18 years old or older currently in the treatment for alcohol, opioids or cocaine use disorders in the clinical unit. Controls were randomly selected among individuals without substance use disorders who participated in the Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia (PEGASUS-Murcia) project, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the adult general population. In all, 142 cases and 531 controls were interviewed and a subsample of 114 cases (80.3%) and 329 controls (62%) provided a biological sample.
A history of 12 childhood adversities, lifetime mental disorders and sociodemographic variables was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)version 3.0). Buccal swabs were obtained to genotype the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with the biallelic and the triallelic classification.
Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to estimate adjusted ORs and 95% CI.
Childhood adversities were associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (OR=5.77, 95% CI 3.46 to 9.61). Homozygotes for the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism also showed the elevated risk of substance use disorders for the biallelic and triallelic classification: (1.97 (1.10 to 3.55) and 2.01 (1.11 to 3.64), respectively). No evidence for gene x environment interactions was found.
Childhood adversities and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism are involved in the aetiology of substance use disorders though findings exploring the existence of a gene–environment interaction were inconclusive.
by Dongsheng Wang, Xuhui Deng, Bei Wang, Na Zhang, Chengzhi Zhu, Zixuan Jiao, Rong Li, Qirong ShenLeaf surface fertilization with liquid fertilizer produced from amino acids constitutes a potentially important source of nitrogen and is important for plant production. However, few reports have focused on the plant growth promotion by novel liquid fertilizers created by new amino acid resources, let alone the influence on leaf microbiota. In this study, the effects of liquid fertilizer, created by amino acids hydrolyzed from animal hairs with or without the PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9, on crop yield and leaf microbiota were investigated. The results showed that leaves sprayed with amino acid liquid fertilizer (AA) and liquid biological fertilizer (AA9) persistently increased cowpea yields compared to the control amended with chemical fertilizer (CF). Fertilization with amino acid fertilizer showed no significant difference in microbial composition compared with the CF treatment; however, the introduction of functional microbes altered the microbial composition. Pearson correlation analysis, VPA analysis and SEM models all revealed that the amino acids liquid fertilizer application, but not the functional strain or the altered microbiota, performed as the direct driver attributing to yield enhancement. We conclude that leaf fertilization with a novel amino acid liquid fertilizer can greatly enhance the crop yield and that the addition of beneficial microbes may perform the role in further altering the composition of leaf microbiota.
by Wesley T. O’Neal, Aniqa B. Alam, Pratik B. Sandesara, J’Neka S. Claxton, Richard F. MacLehose, Lin Y. Chen, Lindsay G. S. Bengtson, Alanna M. Chamberlain, Faye L. Norby, Pamela L. Lutsey, Alvaro AlonsoBackground
Outcomes among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients may differ according to race/ethnicity and sex due to differences in biology, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, and the use and effectiveness of AF treatments. We aimed to characterize patterns of cardiovascular risk across subgroups of AF patients by sex and race/ethnicity, since doing so may provide opportunities to identify interventions. We also evaluated whether these patterns changed over time.Methods
We utilized administrative claims data from the Optum Clinformatics® Datamart database from 2009 to 2015. Patients with AF with ≥6 months of enrollment prior to the first non-valvular AF diagnosis were included in the analysis. Final analysis utilized Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cardiovascular outcomes stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. An additional analysis stratified outcomes by calendar year of AF diagnosis to evaluate changes in outcomes over time.Results
In a cohort of 380,636 AF patients, women had a higher risk of ischemic stroke [HR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.19, 1.31)] and lower risk of heart failure and myocardial infarction [HR (95% CI): 0.91 (0.88, 0.94) and 0.81 (0.77, 0.86), respectively)] compared to men. Black patients had elevated risk across all endpoints compared to whites, while Hispanics and Asian Americans showed no significant differences in any outcome compared to white patients. These sex and race/ethnic differences did not change over time.Conclusions
We found sex and race/ethnic differences in risk of cardiovascular outcomes among AF patients, without evidence of improvement over time.
The use of negative‐pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has displayed significant clinical benefits in the healing of infected wounds. However, the effects of NPWT on bacterial colonisation and infection of traumatic wounds has been controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of NPWT treatment in rabbits with a contaminated full‐thickness wound on bacterial behaviour, including colony morphology, spatial distribution, fissional proliferation, and bacterial bioburden. Full‐thickness wounds were created on the back of rabbits, and were inoculated with bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus. The wounds were treated with sterile gauze dressings and NPWT with continuous negative pressure (−125 mm Hg). Wound samples were harvested on days 0 (6 hours after bacterial inoculation), 2, 4, 6, and 8 at the centre of wound beds before irrigation. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed to determine the characteristic bacteriology. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was performed to obtain bioluminescent images, which were used to observe spatial distribution of the GFP‐labelled S. aureus within the tissue and quantify the bacterial bioburden. NPWT resulted in sparse amounts of scattered bacteria on the wound surface or as sparsely spaced single colonies within the tissue. Wound bioburden on day 8 in the NPWT and gauze groups was 34.6 ± 5.5% and 141.9 ± 15.4% of the baseline values (N = 6), respectively (P < .0001). TEM showed a lack of S. aureus active fission within NPWT‐treated tissue. NPWT can impact S. aureus colony morphology and spatial distribution both on the surface and within wound tissue, and reduce S. aureus as early as 48 hours after therapy initiation. Additionally, NPWT inhibits bacterial fissional proliferation in microcolonies.
Identification of rehospitalisations for heart failure and contributing factors flags health policy intervention opportunities designed to deliver care at a most effective and efficient level. Recognising that heart failure is a condition for which timely and appropriate outpatient care can potentially prevent the use of inpatient services, we aimed to determine to what extent comorbidities and material deprivation were predictive of 1 year heart failure specific rehospitalisation.
All Portuguese mainland National Health Service (NHS) hospitals.
A total of 68 565 hospitalisations for heart failure principal cause of admission, from 2011 to 2015, associated to 45 882 distinct patients aged 18 years old or over.
We defined 1 year specific heart failure rehospitalisation and time to rehospitalisation as outcome measures.
Heart failure principal diagnosis admissions accounted for 1.6% of total hospital NHS budget, and over 40% of this burden is associated to patients rehospitalised at least once in the 365-day follow-up period. 22.1% of the patients hospitalised for a principal diagnosis of heart failure were rehospitalised for the same cause at least once within 365 days after previous discharge. Nearly 55% of rehospitalised patients were readmitted within 3 months. Results suggest a mediation effect between material deprivation and the chance of 1 year rehospitalisation through the effect that material deprivation has on the prevalence of comorbidities. Heart failure combined with chronic kidney disease or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases by 2.8 and 2.2 times, respectively, the chance of the patient becoming a frequent user of inpatient services for heart failure principal cause of admission.
One-fifth of patients admitted for heart failure are rehospitalised due to heart failure exacerbation. While the role of material deprivation remained unclear, comorbidities considered increased the chance of 1 year heart failure specific rehospitalisation, in particular, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
In countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, optimizing screening to reach individuals with undiagnosed infection is essential. The DICI‐VIH study, a cluster‐randomized crossover trial conducted in eight French emergency departments (EDs), found that a strategy combining nurse‐driven targeted HIV screening with routine diagnostic testing was effective.
The aim was to investigate factors associated with the implementation of HIV screening targeting key populations in EDs.
A self‐administered questionnaire was distributed at registration to patients aged 18–64 years and able to give consent during the DICI‐VIH intervention. Based on their responses, those belonging to key populations were offered a rapid test by triage nurses. Two key stages of the process were evaluated: questionnaire distribution by providers and test acceptance by patients. Patient information, daily workload, and ED characteristics were collected. The associations between these variables and (a) the proportion of questionnaires distributed and (b) the proportion of tests accepted were evaluated using multilevel modeling in order to examine differences in screening implementation between EDs.
Questionnaire distribution proportions varied from 23% to 48% across EDs. They were higher on weekdays than weekends (odds ratio, OR: 3.77; 95% CI: 3.57–3.99) and when research staff participated (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.26–1.37). They decreased over time (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.71–0.82; 4th [Q3] vs. 1st quartile [Q0] of intervention days) and with increased patient flow (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.56–0.67; Q3 vs. Q0 of eligible patients). Test acceptance varied from 64% to 77% across EDs, increased with research staff participation (OR 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03–1.40), and decreased over time (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60–0.92; Q3 vs. Q0). Patients who accepted were more likely to be younger (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61–0.96; 50–64‐year‐old vs. 30–39‐year‐old patients).
Patient flow, intervention duration, weekdays, and research staff participation were important determinants of targeted screening implementation. These findings could help guide future implementation in similar settings.
Providing a better understanding of the risk factors for amputation in this particular region, Hunan province, in China might help patients with diabetic foot ulcers receive timely and appropriate medical care and help prevent amputation. Diabetic foot ulcer patients referred to the Third Xiangya Hospital during the period between December 2014 and September 2018 were enrolled. Participants who underwent amputations and received conservative treatments were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses to identify the independent predictors of amputation. Those who required amputation presented significantly higher levels of white blood cell counts, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C‐reactive protein, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. However, levels of haemoglobin, postprandial plasma C‐peptide, triglyceride, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, and uric acid were decreased in patients with amputations. Patients with more advanced Wagner grades had much higher rates of amputation. Multivariable‐adjusted odds ratios in stepwise logistic regression model was 1.317 for HbA1c (95% CI: 1.015‐1.709), 0.255 for triglyceride (95% CI: 0.067‐0.975), and 20.947 for Wagner grades (95% CI: 4.216‐104.080). Independent risk factors for amputation in these Chinese diabetic foot ulcer patients included an elevated HbA1c level, lower triglyceride level, and higher Wagner grades.
To examine the effects of a transtheoretical model‐based WeChat health education program on self‐management in hemodialysis patients in China.
A longitudinal experimental intervention study.
Patients (n=120) who underwent hemodialysis from December 2015 ‐ November 2017 were recruited and randomly allocated to either group 1 (who received a 3‐month WeChat health education immediately after randomization) or group 2 (who was combined with group 1 and received the same intervention at the 5th month after enrollment in the study). Self‐management, knowledge and self‐efficacy were assessed at baseline (T0), 3‐month after enrollment in the study (T1), 21‐month after enrollment in the study (T2).
There were significant group effects on self‐efficacy; time effects on partnership, self‐care, emotion management with total self‐management; interaction effects on problem‐solving and emotion management within total self‐management according to the two‐way repeated measures ANCOVA. Further between‐group comparisons indicated that patients in group 1 had better self‐management than those in group 2 at T1. Within‐group comparisons demonstrated that, compared with the baseline values, group 1 had significantly improved self‐management at T1; however, group 2 had improved self‐management at T2.
The transtheoretical model‐based WeChat health education program had a potentially positive effect on improving the self‐management of hemodialysis patients.
Self‐management is often difficult yet crucial for hemodialysis patients. This study indicated that the transtheoretical model‐based WeChat health education resulted in improved self‐management in hemodialysis patients and can be implemented in continuing care during the interdialysis period to improve self‐management in patients.
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The aim was to explore and describe the child's active participation in daily healthcare practice at children's hospital units in Sweden. Objectives: a) Identify everyday situations in medical and nursing care that illustrate children's active participation in decision‐making, b) Identify various ways of active participation, actual and optimal in situations involving decision‐making, c) Explore factors in nursing and medical care that influence children's active participation in decision‐making.
Despite active participation being a fundamental right for children, they are not always involved in decision‐making processes during their healthcare. There still remains uncertainty on how to support children to actively participate in decisions concerning their healthcare.
A qualitative study with overt, non‐participant observations fulfilling the COREQ checklist criteria (see supplementary File 1).
Observations of interactions between children aged 2‐17 years with both acute and chronic conditions, their parents, and healthcare professionals were conducted at three paediatric hospitals in Sweden. The Scale of Degrees of Self Determination was used to grade identified situations. The scale describes five levels of active participation, with level one being the least and level five being the most active level of participation. Normative judgements were also made.
Children's active participation was assessed as being generally at levels four and five. Children demonstrated both verbal and non‐verbal ways of communication during decision‐making. Findings indicated that children's, parents', and healthcare professional's actions influenced children's active participation in decision‐making processes involving healthcare.
Healthcare professionals specialised in paediatrics need to embrace both a child perspective and a child's perspective, plan care incorporating key elements of a child‐centered care approach, to ensure children's active participation at a level of their choosing.
There is a need for awareness creation to help healthcare professionals facilitate children's active participation in their care and decision‐making.
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Despite the publication of hundreds of trials on gout and hyperuricemia, management of these conditions remains suboptimal. We aimed to assess the quality and consistency of guidance documents for gout and hyperuricemia.
Systematic review and quality assessment using the appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) II methodology.
PubMed and EMBASE (27 October 2016), two Chinese academic databases, eight guideline databases, and Google and Google scholar (July 2017).
We included the latest version of international and national/regional clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements for diagnosis and/or treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, published in English or Chinese.
Two reviewers independently screened searched items and extracted data. Four reviewers independently scored documents using AGREE II. Recommendations from all documents were tabulated and visualised in a coloured grid.
Twenty-four guidance documents (16 clinical practice guidelines and 8 consensus statements) published between 2003 and 2017 were included. Included documents performed well in the domains of scope and purpose (median 85.4%, range 66.7%–100.0%) and clarity of presentation (median 79.2%, range 48.6%–98.6%), but unsatisfactory in applicability (median 10.9%, range 0.0%–66.7%) and editorial independence (median 28.1%, range 0.0%–83.3%). The 2017 British Society of Rheumatology guideline received the highest scores. Recommendations were concordant on the target serum uric acid level for long-term control, on some indications for urate-lowering therapy (ULT), and on the first-line drugs for ULT and for acute attack. Substantially inconsistent recommendations were provided for many items, especially for the timing of initiation of ULT and for treatment for asymptomatic hyperuricemia.
Methodological quality needs improvement in guidance documents on gout and hyperuricemia. Evidence for certain clinical questions is lacking, despite numerous trials in this field. Promoting standard guidance development methods and synthesising high-quality clinical evidence are potential approaches to reduce recommendation inconsistencies.
To assess the prevalence and factors associated with fatigue in the general population.
Population-based, cross-sectional survey performed between May 2014 and April 2017.
General population of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland.
2848 participants (53.2% women, age range 45–86 years).
Prevalence of fatigue the previous week, defined as a score of ≥4 using the Fatigue Severity Scale.
The prevalence of fatigue was 21.9% (95% CI 20.4% to 23.4%) in the total sample. On bivariate analysis, participants with fatigue were younger, had a higher body mass index, a lower handgrip strength and lower ferritin levels. Participants with fatigue were more frequently women, had a lower educational level, presented more frequently with clinical insomnia, diabetes, anaemia, depression and low thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values, had a higher consumption of antihistamines, antidepressants and hypnotics, and rated more frequently their health as bad or very bad. Multivariable analysis showed that obesity (OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.91)), insomnia categories (p value for trend
In a population-based sample aged 45–86, fatigue was present in one out of five subjects. Regarding clinical factors, sleep disturbances such as insomnia and sleep apnoea should be assessed first, followed by depression. Regarding biological factors, anaemia should be ruled out, while screening for hypothyroidism is not recommended as a first step. Sleep complaints and fatigue in older subjects are not due to ageing and should prompt identification of the underlying cause.
Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a significant Islamic religious practice that involves abstinence from food, drink and medication from dawn to dusk. As just under a quarter of the world’s population identifies as Muslim, the effect of fasting on chronic conditions, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a topic of broad relevance. To date, the information in this area has been mixed, with many limitations of previous studies. This study aims to synthesise the evidence of the effect of Ramadan fasting on changes on kidney function, risk factors, episodes of acute kidney injury and impact on the quality of life in patients with CKD or kidney transplant.
A systematic review of the literature will be conducted, using electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL and Scopus. Original research and grey literature on the effect of Ramadan fasting in adult patients with CKD or renal transplantation will be included. Two reviewers will independently screen articles for inclusion in the review and independently assess the methodology of included studies using a customised checklist. Mean difference or risk ratio will be reported for continuous or dichotomous outcomes and results will be pooled using a random-effects model where heterogeneity is reasonable. If possible, subgroups (CKD status, setting, season and risk of bias) will be analysed for effect modification with fasting and the outcomes of interest. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Downs and Black checklist.
The results will be disseminated using a multifaceted approach to engage all stakeholders (patients, practitioners and community leaders). Research ethics board approval is not required as this is a systematic review of previously published research.
This study examines the incidence and spatial clustering of phenylketonuria (PKU) in China between 2013 and 2017.
Data from the Chinese Newborn Screening Information System were analysed to assess PKU incidence with 95% CIs by province, region and disease severity. Spatial clustering of PKU cases was analysed using global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis in the geographic information system.
The database contained 4925 neonates with confirmed PKU during the study period, corresponding to an incidence of 6.28 (95% CI: 6.11 to 6.46) per 100 000 neonates screened. Incidence was highest in the provinces of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai, where it ranged from 19.00 to 28.63 per 100 000 neonates screened. Overall incidence was higher in the northern part of the country, where classical disease predominated, than in the southern part, where mild disease predominated. PKU cases clustered spatially (global Moran’s I=0.3603, Z=5.3097, p
China shows an intermediate PKU incidence among countries, and incidence differs substantially among Chinese provinces and between northern and southern regions. Our results suggest the need to focus efforts on screening, diagnosing and treating PKU in high-incidence provinces.
Childhood obesity is a public health challenge. There is evidence for associations between parents’ feeding behaviours and childhood obesity risk. Primary care provides a unique opportunity for delivery of infant feeding interventions for childhood obesity prevention. Implementation strategies are needed to support infant feeding intervention delivery. The Choosing Healthy Eating for Infant Health (CHErIsH) intervention is a complex infant feeding intervention delivered at infant vaccination visits, alongside a healthcare professional (HCP)-level implementation strategy to support delivery.
This protocol provides a description of a non-randomised feasibility study of an infant feeding intervention and implementation strategy, with an embedded process evaluation and economic evaluation. Intervention participants will be parents of infants aged ≤6 weeks at recruitment, attending a participating HCP in a primary care practice. The intervention will be delivered at the infant’s 2, 4, 6, 12 and 13 month vaccination visits and involves brief verbal infant feeding messages and additional resources, including a leaflet, magnet, infant bib and sign-posting to an information website. The implementation strategy encompasses a local opinion leader, HCP training delivered prior to intervention delivery, electronic delivery prompts and additional resources, including a training manual, poster and support from the research team. An embedded mixed-methods process evaluation will examine the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention, the implementation strategy and study processes including data collection. Qualitative interviews will explore parent and HCP experiences and perspectives of delivery and receipt of the intervention and implementation strategy. Self-report surveys will examine fidelity of delivery and receipt, and acceptability, suitability and comprehensiveness of the intervention, implementation strategy and study processes. Data from electronic delivery prompts will also be collected to examine implementation of the intervention. A cost–outcome description will be conducted to measure costs of the intervention and the implementation strategy.
This study received approval from the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Cork Teaching Hospitals. Study findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.
Identifying the spatial patterns of childhood overweight/obesity (OW/OB) can help to guide resource allocation for preventive intervention in China. This study aims to estimate rates of childhood OW/OB across counties within Shandong Province, using geographic techniques to identify sex-specific spatial patterns of childhood OW/OB as well as the presence of spatial clusters.
Shandong Province in China.
Data on 6 216 076 children and adolescents aged 7–18 years from the Primary and Secondary Schoolchildren Physical Examination Database for Shandong Province were used in this study. Spatial patterns of sex-specific prevalence of childhood OW/OB were mapped. Global autocorrelation statistic (Moran’s I) and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA) were applied to assess the degree of spatial autocorrelation.
The overall prevalence of childhood OW/OB in Shandong province were 15.05% and 9.23%, respectively. Maps of the sex-specific prevalence of OW/OB demonstrate a marked geographical variation of childhood OW/OB in different regions. Prevalence of childhood OW/OB had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation among both boys and girls. LISA analysis identified significant clusters (or ‘hot spots’) of childhood OW/OB in the eastern coastal region, central region and southwestern region.
The prevalence of childhood OW/OB is highly spatially clustered. Geographically focused appropriate intervention should be introduced in current childhood OW/OB prevention and control strategy.