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Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) prevalence, load and excretion in seven species of wild caught common Australian parrots

by Johanne M. Martens, Helena S. Stokes, Mathew L. Berg, Ken Walder, Shane R. Raidal, Michael J. L. Magrath, Andy T. D. Bennett

Pathogens pose a major risk to wild host populations, especially in the face of ongoing biodiversity declines. Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) can affect most if not all members of one of the largest and most threatened bird orders world-wide, the Psittaciformes. Signs of disease can be severe and mortality rates high. Its broad host range makes it a risk to threatened species in particular, because infection can occur via spill-over from abundant hosts. Despite these risks, surveillance of BFDV in locally abundant wild host species has been lacking. We used qPCR and haemagglutination assays to investigate BFDV prevalence, load and shedding in seven abundant host species in the wild in south-east Australia: Crimson Rosellas (Platycercus elegans), Eastern Rosellas (Platycercus eximius), Galahs (Eolophus roseicapillus), Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (Cacatua galerita), Blue-winged Parrots (Neophema chrysostoma), Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus moluccanus) and Red-rumped Parrots (Psephotus haematonotus). We found BFDV infection in clinically normal birds in six of the seven species sampled. We focused our analysis on the four most commonly caught species, namely Crimson Rosellas (BFDV prevalence in blood samples: 41.8%), Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (20.0%), Blue-winged Parrots (11.8%) and Galahs (8.8%). Species, but not sex, was a significant predictor for BFDV prevalence and load. 56.1% of BFDV positive individuals were excreting BFDV antigen into their feathers, indicative of active viral replication with shedding. Being BFDV positive in blood samples predicted shedding in Crimson Rosellas. Our study confirms that BFDV is endemic in our study region, and can inform targeted disease management by providing comparative data on interspecies variation in virus prevalence, load and shedding.

RNA from stabilized whole blood enables more comprehensive immune gene expression profiling compared to RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells

by Fleur van der Sijde, Yunlei Li, Rick Schraauwen, Willem de Koning, Casper H. J. van Eijck, Dana A. M. Mustafa

Monitoring changes in the immune profile in blood samples can help identifying changes in tumor biology and therapy responsiveness over time. Immune-related gene expression profiles offer a highly reproducible method to monitor changes of the immune system. However, measuring gene expression profiles in whole blood samples can be complicated because of the high protein and enzyme abundancy that affect the stability and quality of the RNA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are one the most commonly used source for immune cell RNA extraction, though, this method does not reflect all components of the peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in immune-related gene expression between RNA isolated from stabilized whole blood and RNA isolated from PBMCs. Whole blood samples from 12 pancreatic cancer patients were collected before and after chemotherapy (n = 24). Blood samples were collected in both EDTA tubes, and Tempus tubes containing an RNA stabilizer (total n = 48). PBMCs were isolated from EDTA samples using Ficoll and were snap frozen. Subsequently, immune-related gene expression was profiled using the PanCancer Immune Profiling Panel of NanoString technology. Gene expression profiles of PBMCs were compared to that of Tempus tubes using the Advanced Analysis module of nSolver software. Both types of samples provided good quality RNA and gene expression measurements. However, RNA isolated from Tempus tubes resulted in significantly higher gene counts than PBMCs; 107/730 genes were exclusively detected in Tempus samples, while under the detection limit in PBMCs. In addition, 192/730 genes showed significantly higher gene counts in Tempus samples, 157/730 genes showed higher gene counts in PBMCs. Thus, RNA isolated from whole blood stabilizing blood tubes, such as Tempus tubes, enable higher gene counts and more comprehensive measurements of gene expression profiles compared to RNA isolated from PBMCs.

p120-catenin phosphorylation status alters E-cadherin mediated cell adhesion and ability of tumor cells to metastasize

by Alisha M. Mendonsa, Chirosree Bandyopadhyay, Barry M. Gumbiner

p120-catenin is considered to be a tumor suppressor because it stabilizes E-cadherin levels at the cell surface. p120-catenin phosphorylation is increased in several types of cancer, but the role of phosphorylation in cancer is unknown. The phosphorylation state of p120-catenin is important in controlling E-cadherin homophilic binding strength which maintains epithelial junctions. Because decreased cell-cell adhesion is associated with increased cancer metastasis we hypothesize that p120-catenin phosphorylation at specific Serine and Threonine residues alters the E-cadherin binding strength between tumor cells and thereby affect the ability of tumor cells to leave the primary tumor and metastasize to distant sites. In this study we show that expression of the p120-catenin phosphorylation dead mutant, by converting six Serine and Threonine sites to Alanine, leads to enhanced E-cadherin adhesive binding strength in tumor cells. We observed a decrease in the ability of tumor cells expressing the p120-catenin phosphorylation mutant to migrate and invade using in-vitro models of cancer progression. Further, tumor cells expressing the phosphorylation mutant form of p120-catenin demonstrated a decrease in ability to metastasize to the lungs using an in-vivo orthotopic mammary fat pad injection model of breast cancer development and metastasis. This suggests that regulation of p120-catenin phosphorylation at the cell surface is important in mediating cell-adhesion, thereby impacting cancer progression and metastasis.

Indigenous Australian women's experiences of participation in cervical screening

by Tamara L. Butler, Kate Anderson, John R. Condon, Gail Garvey, Julia M. L. Brotherton, Joan Cunningham, Allison Tong, Suzanne P. Moore, Clare M. Maher, Jacqueline K. Mein, Eloise F. Warren, Lisa J. Whop

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (collectively, Indigenous Australian) women experience a higher burden of cervical cancer than other women. The National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP) is failing to meet the needs of Indigenous Australian women, resulting in many women not regularly participating in cervical screening. However, one third of Indigenous Australian women do participate in cervical screening. The reasons that some women in this population commence and continue to screen remain unheard but could provide insights to support women who currently do not participate. We aimed to describe Indigenous Australian women’s experiences and views of participation in cervical screening by yarning (a culturally-appropriate interview technique) with 50 Indigenous Australian women aged 25–70 years who had completed cervical screening in the past five years, recruited via Primary Health Care Centres (PHCCs) from three jurisdictions. Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander women researchers conducted the interviews. Thematic analysis identified six themes: screening as a means of staying strong and in control; overcoming fears, shame, and negative experiences of screening; needing to talk openly about screening; the value of trusting relationships with screening providers; logistical barriers; and overcoming privacy concerns for women employed at PHCCs. Despite describing screening as shameful, invasive, and uncomfortable, women perceived it as a way of staying healthy and exerting control over their health. This ultimately supported their participation and a sense of empowerment. Women valued open discussion about screening and strong relationships with health providers. We identified logistical barriers and specific barriers faced by women employed at PHCCs. This study is strengthened by a research approach that centred Indigenous Australian women’s voices. Understanding the experiences of Indigenous Australian women who participate in screening will help screening providers support women to start and continue to screen regularly. Recommendations for practice are provided.

Effectiveness of a hydrophobic dressing for microorganisms’ colonization of vascular ulcers: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial (CUCO‐UV Study)

Abstract

Aim

To determine the effectiveness of a hydrophobic dressing (Cutimed Sorbact®) against a silver dressing (Aquacel® Ag Extra) in the level of colonization of chronic venous leg ulcers. The secondary endpoints are health‐related quality of life, level of pain, and time to complete healing.

Design

Open randomized controlled trial, with blinded endpoint.

Methods

Patients with chronic venous leg ulcers with signs of critical colonization will be randomized in a concealed sequence using computer software to receive one of the alternative dressings. A total of 204 participants recruited in Primary Health Care and nursing homes will be necessary to assure statistical power. Measures will include sociodemographic variables, wound‐related variables (area, exudate, and time to healing), level of pain, adverse effects, and health‐related quality of life. Smear samples will be collected from the ulcers and will be subject to DNA‐typing technique through polymerase chain reaction to obtain the level of colony‐forming units. Measures will be collected at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks.

Discussion

Elevated levels of microorganisms prevent wound healing and favour its chronification. The main target when colonization is present is to reduce the bacterial load to levels that promote immune system mobilization. Hydrophobic dressings prevent the formation of biofilm in the wound by means of physical effect, so that the possibility of antimicrobial resistance is significantly reduced.

Impact

Current evidence about the effectiveness of dressings to minimize venous leg ulcers colonization is very limited. Previous studies have important methodological flaws. This study will permit to obtain the effectiveness of hydrophobic dressings against silver dressings with a robust design based on conditions of routine clinical practice in Primary Health Care and nursing homes.

Validation of a simplified score for predicting latent rheumatic heart disease progression using a prospective cohort of Brazilian schoolchildren

Por: Bechtlufft · B. M. · Nascimento · B. R. · Sable · C. · Fraga · C. L. · Barbosa · M. M. · Reis · S. D. · Diamantino · A. C. · Meira · Z. M. A. · Castilho · S. R. T. · Arantes · N. F. · Oliveira · K. K. · Silva · J. L. P. · Rezende · B. D. F. · Costa · W. A. A. · Mata · M. D. · Pereira
Objectives

Echocardiographic (echo) screening is an important tool to estimate rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prevalence, but the natural history of screen-detected RHD remains unclear. The PROVAR+ (Programa de RastreamentO da VAlvopatia Reumática) study, which uses non-experts, telemedicine and portable echo, pioneered RHD screening in Brazil. We aimed to assess the mid-term evolution of Brazilian schoolchildren (5–18 years) with echocardiography-detected subclinical RHD and to assess the performance of a simplified score consisting of five components of the World Heart Federation criteria, as a predictor of unfavourable echo outcomes.

Setting

Public schools of underserved areas and private schools in Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil.

Participants

A total of 197 patients (170 borderline and 27 definite RHD) with follow-up of 29±9 months were included. Median age was 14 (12–16) years, and 130 (66%) were woman. Only four patients in the definite group were regularly receiving penicillin.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Unfavourable outcome was based on the 2-year follow-up echo, defined as worsening diagnostic category, remaining with mild definite RHD or development/worsening of valve regurgitation/stenosis.

Results

Among patients with borderline RHD, 29 (17.1%) progressed to definite, 49 (28.8%) remained stable, 86 (50.6%) regressed to normal and 6 (3.5%) were reclassified as other heart diseases. Among those with definite RHD, 13 (48.1%) remained in the category, while 5 (18.5%) regressed to borderline, 5 (18.5%) regressed to normal and 4 (14.8%) were reclassified as other heart diseases. The simplified echo score was a significant predictor of RHD unfavourable outcome (HR 1.197, 95% CI 1.098 to 1.305, p

Conclusion

The simple risk score provided an accurate prediction of RHD status at 2-year follow-up, showing a good performance in Brazilian schoolchildren, with a potential value for risk stratification and monitoring of echocardiography-detected RHD.

Perceptions of the adult US population regarding the novel coronavirus outbreak

by SarahAnn M. McFadden, Amyn A. Malik, Obianuju G. Aguolu, Kathryn S. Willebrand, Saad B. Omer

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is spreading globally. Although COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic and risk for infection in the United States (US) is currently high, at the time of survey administration the risk of infection in the US was low. It is important to understand the public perception of risk and trust in sources of information to better inform public health messaging. In this study, we surveyed the adult US population to understand their risk perceptions about the COVID-19 outbreak. We used an online platform to survey 718 adults in the US in early February 2020 using a questionnaire that we developed. Our sample was fairly similar to the general adult US population in terms of age, gender, race, ethnicity and education. We found that 69% of the respondents wanted the scientific/public health leadership (either the CDC Director or NIH Director) to lead the US response to COVID-19 outbreak as compared to 14% who wanted the political leadership (either the president or Congress) to lead the response. Risk perception was low (median score of 5 out of 10) with the respondents trusting health professionals and health officials for information on COVID-19. The majority of respondents were in favor of strict infection prevention policies to control the outbreak. Given our results, the public health/scientific leadership should be at the forefront of the COVID-19 response to promote trust.

First description of a herpesvirus infection in genus Lepus

by F. A. Abade dos Santos, M. Monteiro, A. Pinto, C. L. Carvalho, M. C. Peleteiro, P. Carvalho, P. Mendonça, T. Carvalho, M. D. Duarte

During the necropsies of Iberian hares obtained in 2018/2019, along with signs of the nodular form of myxomatosis, other unexpected external lesions were also observed. Histopathology revealed nuclear inclusion bodies in stromal cells suggesting the additional presence of a nuclear replicating virus. Transmission electron microscopy further demonstrated the presence of herpesvirus particles in the tissues of affected hares. We confirmed the presence of herpesvirus in 13 MYXV-positive hares by PCR and sequencing analysis. Herpesvirus-DNA was also detected in seven healthy hares, suggesting its asymptomatic circulation. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated partial sequences of DNA polymerase gene and glycoprotein B gene enabled greater resolution than analysing the sequences individually. The hare’ virus was classified close to herpesviruses from rodents within the Rhadinovirus genus of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily. We propose to name this new virus Leporid gammaherpesvirus 5 (LeHV-5), according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses standards. The impact of herpesvirus infection on the reproduction and mortality of the Iberian hare is yet unknown but may aggravate the decline of wild populations caused by the recently emerged natural recombinant myxoma virus.

Alterations in the structural characteristics of rectus abdominis muscles caused by diabetes and pregnancy: A comparative study of the rat model and women

by Giovana Vesentini, Angélica M. P. Barbosa, Débora C. Damasceno, Gabriela Marini, Fernanda Piculo, Selma M. M. Matheus, Raghavendra L. S. Hallur, Sthefanie K. Nunes, Bruna B. Catinelli, Claudia G. Magalhães, Roberto Costa, Joelcio F. Abbade, José E. Corrente, Iracema M. P. Calderon, Marilza V. C. Rudge, The DIAMATER Study Group

Background and objective

In the present study, we compared the effect of diabetic pregnancy on the rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) in humans and rats. We hypothesized that our animal model could provide valuable information about alterations in the RAM of women with Gestational Diabetes (GDM).

Method

Newborns female rats (n = 10/group) were administered streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously and were mated on reaching adulthood, to develop the mild hyperglycemic pregnant (MHP) rat model. At the end of pregnancy, the mothers were sacrificed, and the RAM tissue was collected. Pregnant women without GDM (non-GDM group; n = 10) and those diagnosed with GDM (GDM group; n = 8) and undergoing treatment were recruited, and RAM samples were obtained at C-section. The RAM architecture and the distribution of the fast and slow fibers and collagen were studied by immunohistochemistry.

Results

No statistically significant differences in the maternal and fetal characters were observed between the groups in both rats and women. However, significant changes in RAM architecture were observed. Diabetes in pregnancy increased the abundance of slow fibers and decreased fast fiber number and area in both rats and women. A decrease in collagen distribution was observed in GDM women; however, a similar change was not observed in the MHP rats.

Conclusion

Our results indicated that pregnancy- associated diabetes- induced similar structural adaptations in the RAM of women and rats with slight alterations in fiber type number and area. These findings suggest that the MHP rat model can be used for studying the effects of pregnancy-associated diabetes on the fiber structure of RAM.

Visual art therapy as a treatment option for cognitive decline among older adults. A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Abstract

Aims

To investigate the effects of visual art therapy (VAT) on cognitive and psychological outcomes and explore the crucial design characteristics of VAT that might be associated with greater cognitive benefits among older adults.

Design

Systematic review and meta‐analysis.

Data sources

Peer reviewed articles were searched from Medline, EMBASE, Global Health, Cochrane Library, Ovid Nursing database, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, and CINAHL Complete from inception of the databases to September 2019.

Review methods

This review and meta‐analysis was conducted and reported according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta‐analyses guidelines. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to examine the risk of bias of the studies. Narrative synthesis and quantitative meta‐analysis were performed.

Result

Twelve articles published between 2004–2019 involving 831 participants were identified. VAT significantly improved global cognitive function compared with different control groups (Hedges' g  = 0.348 [95% CI = 0.026–0.671], p  = .034, I 2 = 66.570%). VAT also demonstrated psychological benefits in reducing depressive symptoms and anxiety. By systematic comparison of the intervention designs, it seems that those with greater cognitive benefit involved a higher level of creativity and optimized the use of essential components including art education, reminiscence, art processing, cognitive evaluation, art crafts/modelling, and socialization.

Conclusion

Visual art therapy could be effective in improving cognitive functions and the associated psychological symptoms. Therefore, it can be adopted as an effective non‐pharmacological intervention for preventing cognitive decline and dementia.

Impact

This review answers the key question about the pooled effect of VAT as nonpharmacological therapy on preventing or managing dementia. In addition, it informs on the design characteristics of an effective VAT for implementing among older adults. This research will have an impact on the gerontological care and support the evidence about non‐pharmacological approaches to prevent and manage dementia.

International mixed methods study protocol to develop a patient-reported outcome measure for all types of chronic wounds (the WOUND-Q)

Por: Klassen · A. · van Haren · E. L. · Cross · K. · Fan · K. L. · Gibbons · C. · Hoogbergen · M. M. · Longmire · N. M. · Poulsen · L. · Sorensen · J. A. · Squitieri · L. · Tsangaris · E. · van Alphen · T. C. · van Dishoeck · A.-M. · Vasilic · D. · Pusic · A. L.
Introduction

Most patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) for chronic wounds are specific to a single wound type (eg, pressure ulcer) or part of the body. A barrier to outcome assessment in wound care and research is the lack of a rigorously designed PROM that can be used across wound types and locations. This mixed method study describes the protocol for an international collaboration to develop and validate a new PROM called the WOUND-Q for adults with chronic wounds.

Methods and analysis

In phase I, the qualitative approach of interpretive description is used to elicit concepts important to people with wounds regarding outcome. Participants from Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the USA are aged 18 years and older and have a wound that has lasted 3 months or longer. Interviews are digitally recorded, transcribed and coded. A conceptual framework and preliminary item pool are developed from the qualitative dataset. Draft scales are formed to cover important themes in the conceptual framework. These scales are refined using feedback from people with chronic wounds and wound care experts. After refinement, the scales are translated into Danish and Dutch, following rigorous methods, to prepare for an international field-test study. In phase II, data are collected in Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the USA. An international sample of people with a large variety of chronic wounds complete the WOUND-Q. Rasch Measurement Theory analysis is used to identify the best subset of items to retain for each scale and to examine reliability and validity.

Ethics and dissemination

This study is coordinated at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (Boston, USA). Ethics board approval was received at each participating site for both study phases. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences and meetings.

Antiretroviral drug class and anaemia risk in the current treatment era among people living with HIV in the USA: a clinical cohort study

Por: Harding · B. N. · Whitney · B. M. · Nance · R. M. · Crane · H. M. · Burkholder · G. · Moore · R. D. · Mathews · W. C. · Eron · J. J. · Hunt · P. W. · Volberding · P. · Rodriguez · B. · Mayer · K. · Saag · M. S. · Kitahata · M. M. · Heckbert · S. R. · Delaney · J. A. C.
Objective

Anaemia is common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and has been associated with certain, often older, antiretroviral medications. Information on current antiretroviral therapy (ART) and anaemia is limited. The objective was to compare the associations between anaemia incidence or haemoglobin change with core ART classes in the current ART era.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Setting

USA-based prospective clinical cohort of PLWH aged 18 and above receiving care at eight sites between January 2010 and March 2018.

Participants

16 505 PLWH were included in this study.

Main outcome measures

Anaemia risk and haemoglobin change were estimated among PLWH for person-time on a protease inhibitor (PI) or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen, relative to a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based reference. We also examined PLWH on regimens containing multiple core classes. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to measure the associations between time-updated ART classes and incident anaemia or severe anaemia. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the relationships between ART classes and haemoglobin change.

Results

During a median of 4.9 years of follow-up, 1040 developed anaemia and 488 developed severe anaemia. Compared with NNRTI use, INSTI-based regimens were associated with an increased risk of anaemia (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.26, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.58) and severe anaemia (aHR 1.51, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.11) and a decrease in haemoglobin level. Time on multiple core classes was also associated with increased anaemia risk (aHR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.70), while no associations were found for PI use.

Conclusion

These findings suggest INSTI use may increase the risk of anaemia. If confirmed, screening for anaemia development in users of INSTIs may be beneficial. Further research into the underlying mechanisms is warranted.

What are potential barriers and enablers to patient and physician participation in Canadian cell therapy trials for stroke? A stakeholder interview study

Por: Lalu · M. M. · Foster · M. · Presseau · J. · Dowlatshahi · D. · Castillo · G. · Cardenas · A. · Tam · W. · Zlepnig · J. · Timpson · D. · Dong · Y. Y. · Juneau · P. · Fergusson · D. A.
Objectives

Early phase cell therapy trials face many barriers to successful, timely completion. To optimise the conduct of a planned clinical trial of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for chronic stroke, we sought patient and physician views on possible barriers and enablers that may influence their participation.

Design

Semistructured interview study.

Setting

Patients were recruited from three rehabilitation centres in Ontario, Canada; physicians were recruited from across Canada through snowball sampling.

Participants

Thirteen chronic stroke patients (patients who had experienced a stroke at least 3 months prior; 10 male, 3 female) and 15 physicians (stroke physiatrists; 9 male, 6 female) participated in our interview study. Data adequacy was reached after 13 patient interviews and 13 physician interviews.

Methods

Interview guides and directed content analysis were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Interviews were coded, and relevant themes were identified.

Results

Most patients were optimistic about participating in an MSC therapy clinical trial, and many expressed interest in participating, even if it was a randomised controlled trial with the possibility of being allocated to a placebo group. However, the method of administration of cells (intravascular preferred to intracerebral) and goal of the trial (efficacy preferred to safety) may influence their intention to participate. All physicians expressed interest in screening for the trial, though many stated they were less motivated to contribute to a safety trial. Physicians also identified several time-related barriers and the need for resources to ensure feasibility.

Conclusions

This novel application of the TDF helped identify key potential barriers and enablers prior to conducting a clinical trial of MSC therapy for stroke. This will be used to refine the design and conduct of our trial. A similar approach may be adopted by other investigators considering early phase cell therapy trials.

Double burden of malnutrition in children aged 24 to 59 months by socioeconomic status in five South Asian countries: evidence from demographic and health surveys

Por: Hossain · F. B. · Shawon · M. S. R. · Al-Abid · M. S. U. · Mahmood · S. · Adhikary · G. · Bulbul · M. M. I.
Objectives

We aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequalities in the burden of underweight and overweight among children in South Asia. We also examined other factors that were associated with these outcomes independently of household’s socioeconomic status.

Design

Nationally-representative surveys.

Settings

Demographic and Health Surveys from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Maldives and Nepal, which were conducted between 2009 and 2016.

Participants

Children aged 24 to 59 months with valid measurement for height and weight (n=146 996).

Primary exposure and outcome measures

Primary exposures were household’s wealth index and level of education. Underweight and overweight were defined according to the WHO and International Obesity Task Force definitions, respectively.

Results

Underweight prevalence was 37% in Bangladesh, 38% in India, 19% in Maldives, 29% in Nepal and 28% in Pakistan. Bangladesh, India and Nepal had similar overweight prevalence (between 2% and 4%) whereas Pakistan (7%) and Maldives (9%) had higher prevalence. Households with higher wealth index or education had lower odds of having underweight children. Adjusted ORs of underweight for richest versus poorest households were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.3 to 0.5), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.5 to 0.6), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2 to 1.4), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3 to 0.8) and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5 to 1.1) for Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal and Pakistan, respectively. Compared with poorest households, richest households were more likely to have overweight children in all countries except Pakistan, but such associations were not significant after adjustment for other factors. There were higher odds of having overweight children in households with higher education in Bangladesh (OR 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3 to 3.5)), India (OR 1.2 (95% CI: 1.2 to 1.3)) and Pakistan (OR 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.9)) when compared with households with no education. Maternal nutritional status was consistently associated with children’s nutritional outcomes after adjustments for socioeconomic status.

Conclusions

Our study provides evidence for socioeconomic inequalities for childhood underweight and overweight in South Asian countries, although the directions of associations for underweight and overweight might be different.

Attitudes of patients and surgeons towards sham surgery trials: a protocol for a scoping review of attributes to inform a discrete choice experiment

Por: Wall · L. · Hinwood · M. · Lang · D. · Smith · A. · Bunzli · S. · Clarke · P. · Choong · P. F. M. · Dowsey · M. M. · Paolucci · F.
Introduction

In order to properly evaluate the efficacy of orthopaedic procedures, rigorous, randomised controlled sham surgery trial designs are necessary. However, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for surgery involving a placebo are ethically debated and difficult to conduct with many failing to reach their desired sample size and power. A review of the literature on barriers and enablers to recruitment, and patient and surgeon attitudes and preferences towards sham surgery trials, will help to determine the characteristics necessary for successful recruitment.

Methods and analysis

This review will scope the diverse literature surrounding sham surgery trials with the aim of informing a discrete choice experiment to empirically test patient and surgeon preferences for different sham surgery trial designs. The scoping review will be conducted in accordance with the methodological framework described in Arksey and O’Malley (2005) and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses Protocols extension for Scoping Reviews. The review will be informed by a systematic search of Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and EconLit databases (from database inception to 21 June 2019), a Google Scholar search, and hand searching of reference lists of relevant studies or reviews. Studies or opinion pieces that involve patient, surgeon or trial characteristics, which influence the decision to participate in a trial, will be included. Study selection will be carried out independently by two authors with discrepancies resolved by consensus among three authors. Data will be charted using a standardised form, and results tabulated and narratively summarised with reference to the research questions of the review.

Ethics and dissemination

The findings from this review will inform the design of a discrete choice experiment around willingness to participate in surgical trials, the outcomes of which can inform decision and cost-effectiveness models of sham surgery RCTs. The qualitative information from this review will also inform patient-centred outcomes research. The review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Trial registration number

CRD42019133296.

Arthroscopic meniscectomy versus non-surgical or sham treatment in patients with MRI confirmed degenerative meniscus lesions: a protocol for an individual participant data meta-analysis

Por: Wijn · S. R. W. · Rovers · M. M. · Rongen · J. J. · Osteras · H. · Risberg · M. A. · Roos · E. M. · Hare · K. B. · van de Graaf · V. A. · Poolman · R. W. · Englund · M. · Hannink · G.
Introduction

Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) after degenerative meniscus tears is one of the most frequently performed surgeries in orthopaedics. Although several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been published that showed no clear benefit compared with sham treatment or non-surgical treatment, the incidence of APM remains high. The common perception by most orthopaedic surgeons is that there are subgroups of patients that do need APM to improve, and they argue that each study sample of the existing trials is not representative for the day-to-day patients in the clinic. Therefore, the objective of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to assess whether there are subgroups of patients with degenerative meniscus lesions who benefit from APM in comparison with non-surgical or sham treatment.

Methods and analysis

An existing systematic review will be updated to identify all RCTs worldwide that evaluated APM compared with sham treatment or non-surgical treatment in patients with knee symptoms and degenerative meniscus tears. Time and effort will be spent in contacting principal investigators of the original trials and encourage them to collaborate in this project by sharing their trial data. All individual participant data will be validated for missing data, internal data consistency, randomisation integrity and censoring patterns. After validation, all datasets will be combined and analysed using a one-staged and two-staged approach. The RCTs’ characteristics will be used for the assessment of clinical homogeneity and generalisability of the findings. The most important outcome will be the difference between APM and control groups in knee pain, function and quality of life 2 years after the intervention. Other outcomes of interest will include the difference in adverse events and mental health.

Ethics and dissemination

All trial data will be anonymised before it is shared with the authors. The data will be encrypted and stored on a secure server located in the Netherlands. No major ethical concerns remain. This IPDMA will provide the evidence base to update and tailor diagnostic and treatment protocols as well as (international) guidelines for patients for whom orthopaedic surgeons consider APM. The results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42017067240.

Conocimiento, uso y percepción de los cigarrillos electrónicos en estudiantes de ciencias de salud

Objetivo: describir el conocimiento, uso y percepción de nocividad de los cigarrillos electrónicos en estudiantes de ciencias de la salud. Metodología: estudio transversal con 380 estudiantes del grado de medicina y enfermería de la Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (Barcelona, España) mediante cuestionario autoadministrado, incluyendo variables sociodemográficas y consumo tabáquico. Se calcularon prevalencias y odds ratio (IC 95%). Se analizaron diferencias entre grupos sobre la percepción de nocividad. Resultados: el 97,9% conocía estos productos. El 29,2% lo habían probado alguna vez, siendo mayor su uso entre fumadores y estudiantes de enfermería. El 15,5% de no fumadores lo había utilizado alguna vez, el 62,5% de ellos con nicotina. El principal motivo de uso fue la curiosidad (70,1%). Conclusión: los resultados apoyan la hipótesis de que los cigarrillos electrónicos pueden ser una entrada a productos con nicotina entre la población joven no fumadora.

Genomic characterisation of <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovar Wangata isolates obtained from different sources reveals low genomic diversity

by Kelly M. J. Simpson, Siobhan M. Mor, Michael P. Ward, Julie Collins, James Flint, Grant A. Hill-Cawthorne, Moataz Abd El Ghany

Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata is an important pathogen in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The incidence of S. Wangata is increasing and transmission is suspected to be via a non-food source. A recent outbreak investigation of sources of S. Wangata recovered isolates from humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the environment. Here, we extend that investigation by characterising and describing the genomic determinates of these isolates. We found that Australian S. Wangata isolates from different sources exhibited similar virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles. There were no major genomic differences between isolates obtained from different geographical regions within Australia or from different host species. In addition, we found evidence (low number of SNPs and identical virulence gene profiles) suggestive of an international transmission event between Australia and the United Kingdom. This study supports the hypothesis that S. Wangata is shared between different hosts in NSW, Australia and provides strong justification for the continued use of genomic surveillance of Salmonella.

Performance evaluation of a laboratory developed PCR test for quantitation of HIV-2 viral RNA

by Linda L. Jagodzinski, Mark M. Manak, Holly R. Hack, Ying Liu, Sheila A. Peel

Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) infections present unique challenges due to low viral titers, slow disease progression, and poor response to standard antiviral therapies. The need for a nucleic acid assay to detect and quantify HIV-2 virus has led to the development of a number of molecular-based assays for detection and/or quantification of HIV-2 viral RNA in plasma in order to provide laboratory evidence of HIV-2 infection and viral loads for use in treatment decisions. As HIV-2 is less pathogenic and transmissible than HIV-1 and has resistance to several of the antiretroviral drugs, delay of treatment is common. Cross sero-reactivity between HIV-1 and HIV-2 makes it difficult to distinguish between the two viruses based upon serological tests. As such we developed a quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay targeting the 5’ long terminal repeat of HIV-2 for detection and quantification of HIV-2 viral RNA in plasma to identify HIV-2 infection and for use in viral load monitoring. Serial dilutions of cultured HIV-2 virus demonstrated a wide dynamic range (10 to 100,000 copies/ml) with excellent reproducibility (standard deviation from 0.12–0.19), linearity (R2 = 0.9994), and a lower limit of detection at 79 copies/ml (NIH-Z). The assay is highly specific for HIV-2 Groups A and B and exhibits no cross reactivity to HIV-1, HBV or HCV. Precision of the assay was demonstrated for the High (Mean = 6.41; SD = 0.12) and Medium (Mean = 4.46; SD = 0.13) HIV-2 positive controls. Replicate testing of clinical specimens showed good reproducibility above 1,000 copies/ml, with higher variability under 1,000 copies/ml. Analysis of 220 plasma samples from HIV-2 infected West African individuals demonstrated significantly lower viral loads than those observed in HIV-1 infections, consistent with results of previous studies. Slightly more than seven percent of clinical samples (7.3%) demonstrated viral loads above 100,000 copies/ml, while 37.3% of samples were undetectable. The high sensitivity, specificity, precision, and linearity of the WRAIR qRT-PCR assay makes it well suited for detection and monitoring of HIV-2 RNA levels in plasma of infected individuals.

Nursing Staff Needs in Providing Palliative Care for Persons With Dementia at Home or in Nursing Homes: A Survey

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate what types and forms of support nursing staff need in providing palliative care for persons with dementia. Another aim was to compare the needs of nursing staff with different educational levels and working in home care or in nursing homes.

Design

A cross‐sectional, descriptive survey design was used.

Methods

A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of Dutch nursing staff working in the home care or nursing home setting. Data were collected from July through October 2018. Quantitative survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Data from two open‐ended survey questions were investigated using content analysis.

Findings

The sample comprised 416 respondents. Nursing staff with different educational levels and working in different settings indicated largely similar needs. The highest‐ranking needs for support were in dealing with family disagreement in end‐of‐life decision making (58%), dealing with challenging behaviors (41%), and recognizing and managing pain (38%). The highest‐ranking form of support was peer‐to‐peer learning (51%). If respondents would have more time to do their work, devoting personal attention would be a priority.

Conclusions

Nursing staff with different educational levels and working in home care or in nursing homes endorsed similar needs in providing palliative care for persons with dementia and their loved ones.

Clinical Relevance

It is critical to understand the specific needs of nursing staff in order to develop tailored strategies. Interventions aimed at increasing the competence of nursing staff in providing palliative care for persons with dementia may target similar areas to support a heterogeneous group of nurses and nurse assistants, working in home care or in a nursing home.

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