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Analysis of the relationship between sex and prescriptions for guideline-recommended therapy in peripheral arterial disease, in relation to 1-year all-cause mortality: a primary care cohort study

Por: Benson · R. A. · Okoth · K. · Keerthy · D. · Gokhale · K. · Adderley · N. J. · Nirantharakumar · K. · Lasserson · D. S.

To explore population patterns of sex-based incidence and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), guideline-directed best medical therapy prescriptions and its relationship with all-cause mortality at 1 year.


A retrospective cohort study.


Anonymised electronic primary care from 787 practices in the UK, or approximately 6.2% of the UK population.


All registered patients over 40 with a documented diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease.

Outcome measure

Population incidence and prevalence of PAD by sex. Patterns of guideline-directed therapy, and correlation with all-cause mortality at 1 year (defined as death due to any outcome) in patients with and without an existing diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Covariates included Charlson comorbidity, sex, age, body mass index, Townsend score of deprivation, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, statin and antiplatelet prescription.


Sequential cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2017 found annual PAD prevalence (12.7–14.3 vs 25.6 per 1000 in men) and incidence were lower in women (11.6–12.4 vs 22.7–26.8 per 10 000 person years in men). Cox proportional hazards models created for PAD patients with and without cardiovascular disease over one full year analysed 25 121 men and 13 480 women, finding that following adjustment for age, women were still less likely to be on a statin (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.72; p


Women with a new diagnosis of PAD were not prescribed guideline-directed therapy at the same rate as men. However once adjusted for factors including age, all-cause mortality in men and women was similar.

Defining CD4 T helper and T regulatory cell endotypes of progressive and remitting pulmonary sarcoidosis (BRITE): protocol for a US-based, multicentre, longitudinal observational bronchoscopy study

Por: Koth · L. L. · Harmacek · L. D. · White · E. K. · Arger · N. K. · Powers · L. · Werner · B. R. · Magallon · R. E. · Grewal · P. · Barkes · B. Q. · Li · L. · Gillespie · M. · Collins · S. E. · Cardenas · J. · Chen · E. S. · Maier · L. A. · Leach · S. M. · OConnor · B. P. · Hamzeh · N. Y.

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disorder thought to be triggered and influenced by gene–environment interactions. Sarcoidosis affects 45–300/100 000 individuals in the USA and has an increasing mortality rate. The greatest gap in knowledge about sarcoidosis pathobiology is a lack of understanding about the underlying immunological mechanisms driving progressive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study is to define the lung-specific and blood-specific longitudinal changes in the adaptive immune response and their relationship to progressive and non-progressive pulmonary outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis.

Methods and analysis

The BRonchoscopy at Initial sarcoidosis diagnosis Targeting longitudinal Endpoints study is a US-based, NIH-sponsored longitudinal blood and bronchoscopy study. Enrolment will occur over four centres with a target sample size of 80 eligible participants within 18 months of tissue diagnosis. Participants will undergo six study visits over 18 months. In addition to serial measurement of lung function, symptom surveys and chest X-rays, participants will undergo collection of blood and two bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage separated by 6 months. Freshly processed samples will be stained and flow-sorted for isolation of CD4 +T helper (Th1, Th17.0 and Th17.1) and T regulatory cell immune populations, followed by next-generation RNA sequencing. We will construct bioinformatic tools using this gene expression to define sarcoidosis endotypes that associate with progressive and non-progressive pulmonary disease outcomes and validate the tools using an independent cohort.

Ethics and dissemination

The study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at National Jewish Hospital (IRB# HS-3118), University of Iowa (IRB# 201801750), Johns Hopkins University (IRB# 00149513) and University of California, San Francisco (IRB# 17-23432). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Findings will be disseminated via journal publications, scientific conferences, patient advocacy group online content and social media platforms.