Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or aortic valve replacement (AVR) are associated with risk of death, as well as brain, heart and kidney injury. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and GLP-1 analogues have been suggested to have potential organ-protective and anti-inflammatory effects. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), consensus on the optimal fraction of oxygen is lacking. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the GLP-1-analogue exenatide versus placebo and restrictive oxygenation (50% fractional inspired oxygen, FiO2) versus liberal oxygenation (100% FiO2) in patients undergoing open heart surgery.
A randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind (for the exenatide intervention)/single blind (for the oxygenation strategy), 2x2 factorial designed single-centre trial on adult patients undergoing elective or subacute CABG and/or surgical AVR. Patients will be randomised in a 1:1 and 1:1 ratio to a 6-hour and 15 min infusion of 17.4 µg of exenatide or placebo during CPB and to a FiO2 of 50% or 100% during and after weaning from CPB. Patients will be followed until 12 months after inclusion of the last participant. The primary composite endpoint consists of time to first event of death, renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy, hospitalisation for stroke or heart failure. In addition, the trial will include predefined sub-studies applying more advanced measures of cardiac- and pulmonary dysfunction, renal dysfunction and cerebral dysfunction. The trial is event driven and aims at 323 primary endpoints with a projected inclusion of 1400 patients.
Eligible patients will provide informed, written consent prior to randomisation. The trial is approved by the local ethics committee and is conducted in accordance with Danish legislation and the Declaration of Helsinki. The results will be presented in peer-reviewed journals.
It is unclear whether kidney disease is a risk factor for developing dementia. We examined the association between kidney disease and risk of future dementia.
Nationwide historical registry-based cohort study in Denmark based on data from 1 January 1995 until 31 December 2016.
All patients diagnosed with kidney disease and matched general population cohort without kidney disease (matched 1:5 on age, sex and year of kidney disease diagnosis).
All-cause dementia and its subtypes: Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and other specified or unspecified dementia. We computed 5-year cumulative incidences (risk) and hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes using Cox regression analyses.
The study cohort comprised 82 690 patients with kidney disease and 413 405 individuals from the general population. Five-year and ten-year mortality rates were twice as high in patients with kidney disease compared with the general population. The 5-year risk for all-cause dementia was 2.90% (95% confidence interval: 2.78% to 3.08%) in patients with kidney disease and 2.98% (2.92% to 3.04%) in the general population. Compared with the general population, the adjusted HRs for all-cause dementia in patients with kidney disease were 1.06 (1.00 to 1.12) for the 5-year follow-up and 1.08 (1.03 to 1.12) for the entire study period. Risk estimates for dementia subtypes differed substantially and were lower for Alzheimer’s disease and higher for vascular dementia.
Patients diagnosed with kidney disease have a modestly increased rate of dementia, mainly driven by vascular dementia. Moreover, patients with kidney disease may be underdiagnosed with dementia due to high mortality and other comorbidities of higher priority.