To present the protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence examining the association between sex hormones and type 2 diabetes risk in ageing men and women of African descent.
We shall conduct a comprehensive search of published studies that examined the association between sex hormones and type 2 diabetes risk in men and women aged ≥40 years from 01/01/1980 to 31/03/2018 with no language restriction. Databases to be searched include: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, ISI Web of Science, Clinical Trial registries, Google Scholar and institutional websites such as the WHO, American Diabetes Association, International Diabetes Federation, World Diabetes Foundation, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, African Journal Online and ProQuest databases. This protocol is developed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols guidelines. Independent screening for eligible studies using defined criteria and data extraction, will be completed in duplicate. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus or consultation with a third researcher. Risk of bias of included studies will be assessed by the appropriate Cochrane risk of bias tool. The overall association estimates will be pooled using appropriate meta-analytic techniques. Heterogeneity will be assessed using Cochrane Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2). The random effects model will be used to calculate a pooled estimate.
No ethics clearance is required as no primary data will be collected. The systematic review and meta-analysis are part of a PhD project at WITS University (Johannesburg, South Africa) and results will be presented at conferences and published in a peer-review journal. The results will guide future population specific interventions.
The objectives were to characterise the haematological profile of screen-detected chronic kidney disease (CKD) participants and to correlate the complete blood count measures with the commonly advocated kidney function estimators.
The current cross-sectional study used data, collected between February 2015 and November 2016, of 1564 adults of mixed-ancestry, who participated in the Cape Town Vascular and Metabolic Health study. Kidney function was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 2, and anaemia as haemoglobin level
Based on the MDRD and CKD-EPI equations, the crude prevalence of CKD was 6% and 3%. Irrespective of the equation used, median red blood cell (RBC) indices were consistently lower in those with CKD compared with those without CKD (all p
Though it remains unclear whether common kidney function estimators provide accurate estimates of CKD in Africans, the correlation of their estimates with deteriorating RBC profile, suggests that advocated estimators, to some extent approximate kidney function in African populations.