by Olivier R. Seynnes, Neil J. CroninIn vivo measurements of muscle architecture (i.e. the spatial arrangement of muscle fascicles) are routinely included in research and clinical settings to monitor muscle structure, function and plasticity. However, in most cases such measurements are performed manually, and more reliable and time-efficient automated methods are either lacking completely, or are inaccessible to those without expertise in image analysis. In this work, we propose an ImageJ script to automate the entire analysis process of muscle architecture in ultrasound images: Simple Muscle Architecture Analysis (SMA). Images are filtered in the spatial and frequency domains with built-in commands and external plugins to highlight aponeuroses and fascicles. Fascicle dominant orientation is then computed in regions of interest using the OrientationJ plugin. Bland-Altman plots of analyses performed manually or with SMA indicate that the automated analysis does not induce any systematic bias and that both methods agree equally through the range of measurements. Our test results illustrate the suitability of SMA to analyse images from superficial muscles acquired with a broad range of ultrasound settings.
Nurse leaders who are mothers are at significant risk for experiencing stress, burnout, and occupational fatigue. Authentic Connections (AC) Groups is an intervention shown to be effective for fostering resilience among at‐risk moms, including physicians; however, it has not previously been tested with nurse leaders.
Our aims were to test the feasibility and acceptability of the AC Groups intervention with nurse leader mothers and examine its effects on participant resilience, as measured by increased self‐compassion and decreased distress, depression, perceived stress, and burnout.
A randomized controlled trial design was employed for this pilot study, with 36 nurse leaders at Mayo Clinic. AC participants attended group sessions for an hour per week for 12 weeks. Control group members were provided 1 hr per week of free time over 12 weeks. Multiple self‐report psychological measures were completed at baseline, post‐intervention, and 3‐month follow‐up.
The AC Groups intervention was feasible and well‐received by nurse leaders. Session attendance rates averaged 92%. Despite the small n’s, repeated measures of Analysis of Variance showed significantly greater improvements (p < .05) for participants in the AC Groups than control condition for depression, self‐compassion, and perceived stress, with large effect sizes ( 0.18–0.22). In addition, effect sizes for anxiety and feeling loved approximated the moderate range ( 0.05 and .07).
The AC intervention shows promise as a feasible intervention for mitigating nurse leader mothers’ stress by positively impacting indices of well‐being, including depression, self‐compassion, and perceived stress. Given, the prevalence of stress and burnout among nurse leaders, the effectiveness of the AC intervention in fostering resilience in this population has significant implications for research and practice. Further research is warranted with larger numbers from multiple sites, longer follow‐up periods, and biomarker measures of stress.
The use of social media has risen steadily since its introduction in the early 2000s, and today there are between 2 and 3 billion users worldwide. Research on the link between use of social media and mental health has resulted in a vast number of studies covering diverse aspects of the link between them. The existing body of knowledge on use of social media, and mental health and well-being among adolescents is complex and difficult to follow. In this paper, we present a protocol for a scoping review to systematically identify and summarise the central research foci and knowledge gaps in the research field of social media use, and mental health and well-being among adolescents.
The current scoping review will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. The first step is to search relevant databases for eligible studies. Relevant databases are CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sociological Services Abstracts, ERIC, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CRD (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), NHS EED, HTA and Epistemonikos. Next, two reviewers from the research team will independently screen the identified studies for eligibility. Data extraction and data synthesis will be performed and result in summarised themes based on the findings.
A scoping review can be described as a method of gaining an overview and understanding of a research area, with its strengths and weaknesses, and as it involves peer-reviewed and published articles, a scoping review does not require ethical approval. We expect that the results from the current scoping review will produce a consolidated overview of existing studies and research gaps, and gather this knowledge into a coherent review. The results will be disseminated through relevant journals and conferences.
Narrative medicine (NM) incorporates stories into health sciences paradigms as fundamental aspects of the human experience. The aim of this systematic review is to answer the research question: how effective is the implementation and evaluation of NM programmes in academic medicine and health sciences? We documented objectives, content and evaluation outcomes of NM programming to provide recommendations for future narrative-based education.
We conducted a systematic review of literature published through 2019 using five major databases: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC and MedEdPORTAL. Eligible NM programming included textual analysis/close reading of published literature and creative/reflective writing. Qualifying participants comprised individuals from academic medicine and health sciences disciplines. We reviewed and categorised programme goals, content and evaluation activities to assess participant satisfaction and programme efficacy. Two members of the research team assessed the risk of bias, independently screening records via a two-round, iterative process to reach consensus on eligibility.
Of 1569 original citations identified, we selected 55 unique programmes (described in 61 records). In all, 41 (75%) programmes reported a form of evaluation; evaluation methods lacked consistency. Twenty-two programmes used quantitative evaluation (13 well described), and 33 programmes used qualitative evaluation (27 well described). Well-described quantitative evaluations relied on 32 different measures (7 validated) and showed evidence of high participant satisfaction and pre-post improvement in competencies such as relationship-building, empathy, confidence/personal accomplishment, pedagogical skills and clinical skills. An average of 88.3% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that the programme had positive outcomes. Qualitative evaluation identified high participant satisfaction and improvement in competencies such as relationship-building, empathy, perspective-taking/reflection, resilience and burnout detection/mitigation, confidence/personal accomplishment, narrative competence, and ethical inquiry.
Evaluation suggests that NM programming leads to high participant satisfaction and positive outcomes across various competencies. We suggest best practices and innovative future directions for programme implementation and evaluation.
Retrospective studies conducted in psychiatric inpatient wards have shown a relation between the intensity of daylight in patient rooms and the length of stay, pointing to an antidepressant effect of ambient lighting conditions. Light therapy has shown a promising antidepressant effect when administered from a light box. The emergence of light-emitting diode (LED) technology has made it possible to build luminaires into rooms and to dynamically mimic the spectral and temporal distribution of daylight. The objective of this study is to investigate the antidepressant efficacy of a newly developed dynamic LED-lighting system installed in an inpatient ward.
In all, 150 inpatients with a major depressive episode, as part of either a major depressive disorder or as part of a bipolar disorder, will be included. The design is a two-arm 1:1 randomised study with a dynamic LED-lighting arm and a static LED-lighting arm, both as add-on to usual treatment in an inpatient psychiatric ward. The primary outcome is the baseline adjusted score on the 6-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at week 3. The secondary outcomes are the mean score on the Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale at week 3, the mean score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at week 3 and the mean score on the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) at week 3. The spectral distribution of daylight and LED-light, with a specific focus on light mediated through the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, will be measured. Use of light luminaires will be logged. Assessors of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and data analysts will be blinded for treatment allocation. The study was initiated in May 2019 and will end in December 2021.
No ethical issues are expected. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, disseminated electronically and in print and presented at symposia.
Arterial stiffness and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are the key markers of hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension, however, whether this approach might also improve markers of hypertensive TOD is unknown. In this study, we will investigate whether daily dietary inorganic nitrate administration reduces LV mass and improves measures of arterial stiffness.
NITRATE-TOD is a double-blind, randomised, single-centre, placebo-controlled phase II trial aiming to enrol 160 patients with suboptimal BP control on one or more antihypertensives. Patients will be randomised to receive 4 months once daily dose of either nitrate-rich beetroot juice or nitrate-deplete beetroot juice (placebo). The primary outcomes are reduction in LV mass and reduction in pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central BP.
The study has a power of 95% for detecting a 9 g LV mass change by cardiovascular MRI (~6% change for a mildly hypertrophied heart of 150 g). For PWV, we have a power of >95% for detecting a 0.6 m/s absolute change. For central systolic BP, we have a>90% power to detect a 5.8 mm Hg difference in central systolic BP.
Secondary end points include change in ultrasound flow-mediated dilation, change in plasma nitrate and nitrite concentration and change in BP.
The study was approved by the London—City and East Research Ethics Committee (10/H0703/98). Trial results will be published according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement and will be presented at conferences and reported in peer-reviewed journals.
Developing and evaluating effective transition interventions for young people (16–25 years) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a high priority. While transition clinics (TCs) have been recommended, little is known about their operating structures and outcomes. This study aimed to gain insight into the value of a TC compared with direct handover care.
Controlled mixed-methods evaluation of process outcomes, clinical outcomes and patient-reported outcomes.
Two outpatient IBD clinics in the Netherlands.
Data collection included: semistructured interviews with professionals (n=8), observations during consultations with young people (5x4 hours), medical chart reviews of patients transferred 2 to 4 years prior to data collection (n=56 in TC group; n=54 in control group) and patient questionnaires (n=14 in TC group; n=19 in control group).
Data were collected on service structures and daily routines of the TC, experienced barriers, facilitators and benefits, healthcare use, clinical outcomes, self-management outcomes and experiences and satisfaction of young people with IBD.
At the TC, multidisciplinary team meetings and alignment of care between paediatric and adult care providers were standard practice. Non-medical topics received more attention during consultations with young people at the TC. Barriers experienced by professionals were time restrictions, planning difficulties, limited involvement of adult care providers and insufficient financial coverage. Facilitators experienced were high professional motivation and a high case load. Over the year before transfer, young people at the TC had more planned consultations (p=0.015, Cohen’s d=0.47). They showed a positive trend in better transfer experiences and more satisfaction. Those in direct handover care more often experienced a relapse before transfer (p=0.003) and had more missed consultations (p=0.034, Cohen’s d=–0.43) after transfer.
A TC offer opportunities to improve transitional care, but organisational and financial barriers need to be addressed before guidelines and consensus statements in healthcare policy and daily practice can be effectively implemented.
Fever is an integral part of the inflammatory response and has therefore likely a physiological role in fighting infections. Nevertheless, whether fever in itself is beneficial or harmful in adults is unknown. This protocol for a systematic review aims at identifying the beneficial and harmful effects of fever control interventions in adults.
This protocol for a systematic review was conducted following the recommendations of Cochrane, GRADE and the eight-step assessment suggested by Jakobsen and colleagues for better validation of meta-analytical results in systematic reviews. We plan to include all relevant randomised clinical trials comparing any fever control intervention with placebo, sham or no intervention in adults. We plan to search CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection to identify relevant trials. Any eligible trial will be assessed and classified as either at high risk of bias or low risk of bias, and our primary conclusions will be based on trials at low risk of bias. We will perform our meta-analyses of the extracted data using Review Manager 5.3 and Trial Sequential Analysis. For all our outcomes, we will create a ‘Summary of Findings’ table based on GRADE assessments of the certainty of the evidence.
No formal approval or review of ethics is required for this systematic review as individual patient data will not be included. This systematic review has the potential to highlight (1) whether one should believe fever to be beneficial, harmful or neither in adults; (2) the existing knowledge gaps on this topic; and (3) whether the recommendations from guidelines and daily clinical practice are correct. These results will be disseminated through publication in a leading peer-reviewed journal.
We have previously developed and validated the Arthritis Research UK Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire (MSK-HQ) for use across musculoskeletal care pathways, showing encouraging psychometric test results. The objective of this study was to determine the responsiveness of MSK-HQ following MSK treatments and to determine the minimally important change (MIC).
We collected data in four cohorts from community physiotherapy and secondary-care orthopaedic hip, knee and shoulder clinics.
592 individuals were recruited; 210 patients treated with physiotherapy for a range of MSK conditions in primary care; 150 patients undergoing hip replacement, 150 patients undergoing knee replacement and 82 undergoing shoulder surgery in secondary care.
Preoperative data were collected including the MSK-HQ, European Quality of Life-5D (EQ-5D) and the OHS, OKS or OSS in each joint-specific group. The same scores, together with anchor questions, were collected postintervention at 3 months for the physiotherapy group and 6 months for all others. Following COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines, responsiveness was assessed using correlation between scores and the MIC was calculated for the entire cohort using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
The MSK-HQ demonstrated strong correlation (R=0.73) with EQ-5D across the entire cohort and with each of the joint-specific Oxford scores (hip R=0.87, knee R=0.92 and shoulder R=0.77). Moderate correlation was seen between MSK-HQ and EQ-5D across each individual group (R value range 0.60–0.68), apart from the hip group where correlation was strong (R=0.77). The effect size with MSK-HQ was 0.93, in the entire cohort, double that measured with EQ-5D (0.43). In all subgroups, MSK-HQ measured a greater treatment effect compared with EQ-5D. The MIC is 5.5 (95% CI 2.7 to 8.3).
Our study demonstrates that the MSK-HQ questionnaire is responsive to change across a range of musculoskeletal conditions, supporting its use as a generic MSK measurement instrument.
Evaluate effectiveness, harms and burdens of faecal blood testing, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer over 15 years.
We performed an update of a Cochrane systematic review, and performed network meta-analysis comparing randomised trials evaluating colorectal cancer screening with guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) (annual, biennial), faecal immunochemical test (FIT) (annual, biennial), sigmoidoscopy (once-only) or colonoscopy (once-only) in a healthy population, aged 50–79 years. We conducted subgroup analysis on sex. Follow-up >5 years was required for analysis of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.
12 randomised trials proved eligible. Compared with no-screening, we found high certainty evidence for sigmoidoscopy screening slightly reducing colorectal cancer incidence (relative risk (RR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.70 to 0.83) and mortality (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.80), while gFOBT screening had little or no difference on colorectal cancer incidence, but slightly reduced colorectal cancer mortality (annual: RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.86, biennial: RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93). No screening test reduced mortality nor incidence by more than six per 1000 screened over 15 years. Sigmoidoscopy had a greater effect in men, for both colorectal cancer incidence (women: RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.92, men: RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.79), and mortality (women: RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.96, men: RR 0.67; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.75) (moderate certainty).
In a 15-year perspective, sigmoidoscopy reduces colorectal cancer incidence, while sigmoidoscopy, annual and biennial gFOBT all reduce colorectal cancer mortality. Sigmoidoscopy may reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality more in men than in women.
by Maria J. Clavijo, Srinand Sreevatsan, Timothy J. Johnson, Albert RoviraMycoplasma hyorhinis is one of the causative agents of polyserositis and arthritis in post-weaning pigs. Here we describe the development of a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) protocol for the characterization of M. hyorhinis field isolates. A total of 104 field isolates from different geographical locations, swine production systems, and clinical backgrounds, were analyzed. Twenty-seven genes, including housekeeping and those encoding surface proteins, were evaluated to index diversity. Genes encoding surface proteins were included to increase the discriminatory power of the MLST. Four target gene fragments were selected to be included in the final MLST-s (surface) protocol: pdhB, p95, mtlD and ung. Within each locus the nucleotide variation ranged from 1.4% to 20%. The 104 field isolates were classified into 39 distinct sequence types (STs). Multiple STs were found within the same production system and within the same pig. The majority of STs grouped strains from the same production system; however, cases existed where multiple systems shared a ST, indicating potential relationships between pig flows. The majority of the nucleotide changes observed in these genes generated synonymous changes, while non-synonymous changes were exclusively in the mtlD gene fragment, suggesting that this protein is undergoing selection. Molecular typing of M. hyorhinis will primarily aid swine practitioners with pig flow management and identifying sources of infection during outbreaks.
Exercise training can improve lower‐limb cutaneous microvascular reactivity in adults with venous leg ulceration; however, there is a lack of research on patients' views about the acceptability and feasibility of exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to explore participants' experiences of the trial “Exploring the Feasibility of Implementing a Supervised Exercise Training and Compression Hosiery Intervention in Patients with Venous Ulceration” (FISCU). Semi‐structured face‐to‐face and telephone interviews were used to investigate participants' experiences (n = 16) of taking part in the FISCU trial. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three overarching themes were identified, along with 11 sub‐themes: (a) sedentary cautious living (because of pain and reduced mobility, treatment and perceived control, and advice to rest and be careful), (b) key components of the exercise trial (including motivation, an individualised intervention supervised by a specialist exercise professional, and satisfaction with the intervention), and (c) benefits of exercise (physical benefits and healing, psychological well‐being, positive impact on comorbidities, and an improved self‐management strategy). This study found that an exercise intervention was viewed by participants as positive, acceptable, and feasible while living with a venous leg ulcer. An individualised and supervised exercise programme was key to build confidence to exercise.
The appropriateness of using routinely collected laboratory data combined with administrative data for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is still being explored. This paper outlines a protocol to estimate influenza VE using linked laboratory and administrative data which could act as a companion to estimates derived from other methods.
We will use the test-negative design to estimate VE for each influenza type/subtype and season. Province-wide individual-level records of positive and negative influenza tests at the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health in Alberta will be linked, by unique personal health numbers, to administrative databases and vaccination records held at the Ministry of Health in Alberta to determine covariates and influenza vaccination status, respectively. Covariates of interests include age, sex, immunocompromising chronic conditions and healthcare setting. Cases will be defined based on an individual’s first positive influenza test during the season, and potential controls will be defined based on an individual’s first negative influenza test during the season. One control for each case will be randomly selected based on the week the specimen was collected. We will estimate VE using multivariable logistic regression.
Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Alberta’s Health Research Ethics Board—Health Panel under study ID Pro00075997. Results will be disseminated by public health officials in Alberta.
In healthcare systems, practices and products of unproven value and cost-effectiveness can decrease value and increase waste. Using the management of complex wounds, this study investigates temporal trends in the use of antimicrobials dressings, places this in the context of available evidence and discusses the potential impacts on the UK National Health Service (NHS).
Secondary descriptive and interrupted time series (ITS) analysis of NHS prescription data.
Prescribing Cost Analysis (PCA) details all NHS prescriptions dispensed in the community in England.
An ITS design was used to compare annual changes in the expenditure and use of antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial dressings before and after the publication of the ‘intervention’ of key evidence-based Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidance in 2010.
Trends in use and expenditure of antimicrobial dressings in relation to published clinical guidance.
There was a large increase in the prescribing of, and expenditure on, antimicrobial wound dressings between 1997 and 2016. In 1997, the total number of dressings prescribed was 5 792 700; increasing to 11 447 102 in 2009 with expenditure increasing from £1 960 386 to £32 841 263. During the year of the SIGN intervention (2010), there was a significant drop in the use of silver but there was no consistent ongoing reduction from 2011 to 2015.
Prescribing data can be used to identify products of unproven benefit, which also impose a significant financial burden. This study quantifies the huge increase in the use of antimicrobial wound dressings over a 20-year period despite the lack of compelling evidence to support their routine use. There is some suggestion, however that the use and expenditure decreased after the publication of key guidance. Routine data can be used to as part of more systematic efforts to increase value and reduce waste in health systems.
We describe an approach to rapidly adapt and implement an education and skills improvement intervention to address the needs of family caregivers of functionally impaired veterans—Helping Invested Families Improve Veterans’ Experience Study (HI‐FIVES).
Prior to implementation in eight sites, a multidisciplinary study team made systematic adaptations to the curriculum content and delivery process using input from the original randomized controlled trial (RCT); a stakeholder advisory board comprised of national experts in caregiver education, nursing, and implementation; and a veteran/caregiver engagement panel. To address site‐specific implementation barriers in diverse settings, we applied the Replicating Effective Programs implementation framework.
Adaptations to HI‐FIVES content and delivery included identifying core/noncore curriculum components, reducing instruction time, and simplifying caregiver recruitment for clinical settings. To enhance curriculum flexibility and potential uptake, site personnel were able to choose which staff would deliver the intervention and whether to offer class sessions in person or remotely. Curriculum materials were standardized and packaged to reduce the time required for implementation and to promote fidelity to the intervention.
The emphasis on flexible intervention delivery and standardized materials has been identified as strengths of the adaptation process. Two key challenges have been identifying feasible impact measures and reaching eligible caregivers for intervention recruitment.
This systematic implementation process can be used to rapidly adapt an intervention to diverse clinical sites and contexts. Nursing professionals play a significant role in educating and supporting caregivers and care recipients and can take a leading role to implement interventions that address skills and unmet needs for caregivers.
Cancer care has expanded from a disease-focused, survival-oriented model to an approach that now considers how survivors can live well in the aftermath of intensive therapy, where they may deal with significant changes to their bodies, mental health or emotional well-being. Research evidence supports the benefit of exercise during and following cancer treatments for cancer-related symptoms, physical functioning and fitness, and health-related quality of life. To move this efficacy evidence into practice, we designed and launched a 5-year study to evaluate the relative benefit from implementing a clinic-to-community-based cancer and exercise model of care.
A hybrid effectiveness and implementation trial design is being used to evaluate the effectiveness of delivery of community-based exercise and to collect data on implementation of the programme. The study opened in January 2017, with estimated completion by January 2022. The programme will be delivered in seven cities across the province of Alberta, Canada, with sites including three academic institutions, six YMCA locations, Wellspring Edmonton and Calgary, and six municipal fitness centres. Participants are adult cancer survivors (n=2500) from all tumour groups and stages and at any time point along their cancer treatment trajectory, up to 3 years post treatment completion. Survivors take part in a minimum of 60 min of mild-to-moderate intensity full body exercise twice weekly for a 12-week period. The primary effectiveness outcome is the proportion of participants meeting or exceeding 150 min of moderate intensity exercise per week at 1-year follow-up. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework will be utilised to capture individual-level and organizational-level impact of the exercise programme at 12 and 24 weeks and 1-year follow-up. The cohort of survivors participating in the study will allow for long-term (>5-year) evaluation of rates of cancer recurrence and secondary cancers beyond the funding period.
The study was approved by the Health Research Ethics Board of Alberta. The study is funded by Alberta Innovates and the Alberta Cancer Foundation. The study will help to answer critical questions on the effectiveness of cancer-specific community-based exercise programming in both the short-term and the long-term. Collectively, the findings will help to inform the acceptability, adoption, feasibility, reach and sustainability of community-based exercise.
Sarcopenia in the lumbar paraspinal muscles is receiving renewed attention as a cause of spinal degeneration. However, there are few studies on the precise concept and diagnostic criteria for spinal sarcopenia. Here, we develop the concept of spinal sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. In addition, we aim to observe the natural ageing process of paraspinal and back muscle strength and investigate the association between conventional sarcopenic indices and spinal sarcopenia.
This is a prospective observational cohort study with 120 healthy community-dwelling older adults over 4 years. All subjects will be recruited in no sarcopenia, possible sarcopenia or sarcopenia groups. The primary outcomes of this study are isokinetic back muscle strength and lumbar paraspinal muscle quantity and quality evaluated using lumbar spine MRI. Conventional sarcopenic indices and spine specific outcomes such as spinal sagittal balance, back performance scale and Sorenson test will also be assessed.
Before screening, all participants will be provided with oral and written information. Ethical approval has already been obtained from all participating hospitals. The study results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.
This non‐inferiority, multicentre, randomised, controlled, and double‐blinded clinical trial compared the therapeutic effectiveness of the topical application of an olive oil solution with that of a hyperoxygenated fatty acid compound for the prevention of pressure ulcers in at‐risk nursing home residents. The study population comprised 571 residents of 23 nursing homes with pressure ulcer risk, randomly assigned to a hyperoxygenated fatty acid group (n = 288) or olive oil solution group (n = 283). Both solutions were applied on at‐risk skin areas every 12 hours for 30 days or until pressure ulcer onset. The main outcome variable was the pressure ulcer incidence. The absolute risk difference was estimated (with 95% CI) using Kaplan‐Meier survival and Cox regression curves. The groups did not significantly differ in any study variable at baseline. The pressure ulcer incidence was 4.18% in the olive oil group vs 6.57% in the control group, with an incidence difference of −2.39% (95% CI = −6.40 to 1.56%), which is within the pre‐established non‐inferiority margin of ±7%, thus supporting the study hypothesis. We present the first evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the topical application of olive oil to prevent pressure ulcers in the institutionalised elderly.
Managing acute wounds with soft tissue loss can be very challenging for both patients and physicians. Successful wound healing depends on several factors including exudate control, prevention of infection, and moisture balance. In this case series, we describe a novel combination treatment method utilising small intestinal submucosa wound matrix (SISWM) with the bolster technique as a way of assisting the integration of collagen‐based wound treatment products into the base of complex wounds with the intent of restoring a dysfunctional extracellular matrix. In case 1, a 44‐year‐old female presented with an acute wound resulting from a spider bite to the posterior aspect of the right knee. In case 2, a 12‐year‐old male sustained multiple injuries to his right foot from an all‐terrain vehicle accident. In case 3, an 80‐year‐old female on anticoagulants sustained an avulsion injury to her left lower leg. In case 4, a 41‐year‐old female sustained a severe complex avulsion injury to the dorsal left forearm sustained from a dog bite. All patients were successfully treated with SISWM and the bolster technique, and their wounds healed completely within 6 weeks. The bolster technique, when combined with an SISWM, is a novel method designed to enable the SISWM to impart its wound healing properties to these complex traumatic wounds. This case series presents treating clinicians with a different treatment methodology to assist the patient in achieving a successful outcome.
To evaluate the prevalence of drink driving and speeding during 2015–2018 in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Cross-sectional observational study.
Roads representing the five main regions of the city of Sao Paulo in Brazil, one of the world’s largest urban areas.
Drivers (N=10 294) stopped at routine roadside breath testing checkpoints and those driving in selected roads for speeding measurement (N=414 664).
Microwave radar guns were used to measure the speed of vehicles, while the prevalence of drivers under the influence of alcohol was observed in police checkpoints. Data were collected during three consecutive years (2016–2018) following a baseline study established in 2015 using a city-level representative sample of observational data representing all days of the week.
Alcohol-related fatalities kept at a constantly high percentage, with 39% of road traffic deaths involving alcohol in 2016. Drivers testing above the legal breath alcohol concentration limit showed a decreasing trend, from 4.1% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.5%) at baseline to 0.6% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.2%) in the end of 2018 (p
Drink driving rates have reduced, likely due to an increase in drivers refusing breath alcohol tests, while speeding rates have increased significantly by the end of the study period, particularly among motorcycles. Future strategies aiming at reducing road traffic injuries in the major Brazilian city should tailor drink driving and speeding enforcement based on the new evidence provided here.