Objetivo principal: conocer los motivos que llevan a las mujeres a optar por el parto domiciliário planificado. Metodología: estudio descrip-tivo, exploratorio, con un enfoque cualitativo. Participaron en la investigaciõn nueve mujeres que han optado por tener su parto en casa. Recolección de datos se produjo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, realizadas individualmente. Se utilizó la técnica de análisis de contenido de tipo temático. Resultados principales: del análisis emergieron los temas: Motivos que llevaron al parto domiciliário; Percep-ción de las mujeres sobre el parto domiciliário; Conductas de los profesionales de la salud en el parto domiciliário; y El enfermero frente a la asistencia al parto domiciliário. Conclusión principal: Las mujeres que optan por el parto domiciliario buscan una atención más humana sobre el parto, evitando una serie de intervenciones innecesarias, comunes en los hospitales.
Surgical patients are at risk of developing a perioperative pressure injury (ORPI) during surgery. Accurate assessment and prompt implementation of prevention strategies or treatment of ORPI are dependent on knowledge and skills of operating room (OR) nurses. The study examined the knowledge and attitude of OR nurses in identifying at‐risk patients. A cross‐sectional, prospective, descriptive study was adopted. OR nurses were invited to complete the survey using the attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention instrument (Cronbach α of 0.79) and pressure ulcer knowledge assessment tool (Cronbach α of 0.77). Approximately, 28% of OR nurses took part in the survey. Most of them were females (99%) with a mean age of 38.4 ± 12.9 years old. Of these, 73% of the nurses described not having adequate experience in preventing ORPI, and 88% of them were uncertain about the treatment strategies. The mean overall knowledge score was 47.8 ± 9.1% for this cohort. The study demonstrated that approximately 8.9% of OR nurses passed with a score ≥ 60% for knowledge. The mean overall attitude score was 74.6 ± 6.1% for this cohort. About 35.6% of these nurses gave positive scores of greater than 75% for attitudes. The knowledge scores have no relationship with the working experience, role responsibility, academic qualification, ethnicity, nationality, and gender except for age 35 years older or equal and younger. Still, both the knowledge and attitude scores obtained have a strong relationship with the nurses' experiences with PI prevention. Personal competency to prevent PI has a strong correlation with risk identifying and preventing PI. There are strong associations between being responsible for PI development and the knowledge on risk identification and prevention of PI. The attitude regarding the prioritisation of PI prevention is also strongly correlated to the nurses' knowledge in preventing PI. Positive attitudes of OR nurses have no relationship with the overall knowledge scores. The prevention of ORPI is not on the list of priorities among OR nurses. The knowledge of preventive measures and risk identification of PI was limited among local OR nurses. Incorporating a standard screening and assessment tool within the current assessment list will support and promote ORPI risk assessment and continuous assessment. Contextualised education on ORPI prevention and management should be considered part of the training for OR nurses.
La inclusión de revistas científicas en fuentes documentales ha evolucionado desde la exhaustividad hacia la selectividad, en función del uso creciente que se hace de las mismas a efectos de evaluación del conocimiento. El entorno CUIDEN, que incorpora la base de datos referencial y el índice de citas CUIDEN Citación, no ha sido ajeno a esta tendencia, de manera que en los últimos años ha extremado los criterios de selección, a la vez que ha reducido el tiempo en que la información bibliométrica está disponible. En este trabajo se describen ambos recursos documentales y se exponen sus propiedades en la evaluación de revistas de enfermería y afines del ámbito iberoamericano, complementando así la escasa información que sobre las mismas proporcionan otras fuentes más genéricas. Se aporta como ejemplo dos modelos de evaluación correspondientes a los países más productores de conocimiento enfermero en Iberoamérica: Brasil y España.
Pain is a serious problem for patients with leg ulcers. Research mainly focuses on dressing‐related pain; however, chronic background pain may be just as devastating. Our main objective was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of wound‐related background pain in persons with chronic venous leg ulcers. We performed a systematic review to synthesise data from quantitative studies. Studies were eligible if they reported original baseline‐ or cross‐sectional data on background pain in chronic venous leg ulcers. The initial search identified 2454 publications. We included 36 descriptive and effect studies. The pooled prevalence of wound‐related background pain (from 10 studies) was 80% (95% CI 65‐92%). The mean pain intensity score (from 27 studies) was 4 (0‐10 numeric rating scale) (95% CI 3.4‐4.5). Other pain characteristics could not be synthesised. We identified few sufficiently high‐quality studies on prevalence and intensity of wound‐related background pain in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. Four of five persons experience mild to moderate pain. Because of poor quality of pain assessment and report, we believe that the available research does not provide a sufficiently nuanced understanding of background pain in this patient group.
Although obesity appears to be an important predictor of mortality and morbidity, little data about the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of severely burned patients are available. Patients admitted to the General Hospital Vienna between 1994 and 2014, who underwent surgery because of burn injuries, were enrolled in this study. BMI was used to divide patients into five groups: BMI 18.5 to 24.9, 25 to 29.9, 30 to 34.9, 35 to 39.9, and > 40. The groups were compared in terms of difference of mortality and morbidity. Of 460 patients, 34.3% (n = 158) died. Mortality rates were the lowest in patients with obesity class III and the highest in patients with BMI 35 to 39.9 (BMI 18.5‐24.9: 30.5%, BMI 25‐29.9: 31.5%, BMI 30‐34.9: 41.3%, BMI 35‐39.9: 55.5%, BMI > 40: 30%; P = .031). BMI was not found to be an independent risk factor when corrected with age, percent total body surface area burned, full‐thickness burns, and inhalation injury. No significant differences in length of stay, inhalation trauma, pneumonia, wound infection, sepsis, and invasive ventilation were observed. BMI as an independent risk factor for severely burned patients could not be confirmed via multivariate analysis.
Wound healing is a complex cellular and biochemical process and can be affected by several systemic and local factors. In this study, we aimed to discuss the aetiologic factors of non‐healing wounds and the management of this complicated process with current information. The medical data of the patients who were admitted to our clinic due to non‐healing or chronic wounds were analysed retrospectively. A total of 27 patients were evaluated retrospectively during the 14 months of the study. The data of 6 patients who were followed up for chronic wound that developed after abdominal incisional hernia repair and pilonidal sinus surgery were not included in the study as their data could not be reached. A total of 21 patients were included in the study. Malignancy was diagnosed in two patients and granulomatous disease was found in four patients. The aetiology of the other cases included foreign body reaction, infection, and mechanical causes. Non‐healing wounds are a serious social and economic problem for patients. Further studies on the pathophysiology of various aetiologies in non‐healing wounds in both clinical settings and experimental animal models would be a useful step in treatment.
Wound healing, especially diabetic ones, is a relevant clinical problem, so it is not surprising that surgical procedures are often needed. To overcome invasive procedures, several strategies with drugs or natural compound are used. Recently, in an experimental study, we described an increase in keratinocyte proliferation after their exposition to quercetin plus oleic acid. In the present clinical study, we evaluated both the clinical efficacy and the safety of nano‐hydrogel embedded with quercetin and oleic acid in the treatment of lower limb skin wound in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Fifty‐six DM patients (28 men and 28 women, mean age 61.7 ± 9.2 years) unsuccessfully treated with mechanical compression were enrolled and randomised to receive an add on treatment with hyaluronic acid (0.2%) or nano‐hydrogel embedded with quercetin and oleic acid. The treatment with nano‐hydrogel embedded with quercetin and oleic acid significantly (P < .01) reduced the wound healing time, in comparison to hyaluronic acid (0.2%) without developing of adverse drug reactions, suggesting that this formulation could be used in the management of wound healing even if other clinical trials must be performed in order to validate this observation.
In this study, mycobacteria, which were previously identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) with cord factor and the p‐nitro‐alpha‐acetyl‐amino‐beta‐hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) test were reanalysed using the polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR‐RFLP) analysis method in order to confirm the identification, and at the same time, species accepted as MOTT were identified. Although the results of the NAP test were obtained within 3‐5 days, the PCR‐RFLP results were obtained in 1 day. Ten species identified as MTC with the NAP test and cord factor were confirmed with the PCR‐RFLP method. Fourteen species accepted as MOTT were identified as Mycobacterium species with the evaluation of the bands observed after the restriction of PCR product with the PCR‐RFLP method. These were as follows: three species Mycobacterium intracellulare type I, two species Mycobacterium phlei, two species Mycobacterium kansasii, one species Mycobacterium fortuitum type I, one species Mycobacterium gordonae type I, one species Mycobacterium abscessus type I, one species Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, one species Mycobacterium szulgai type I, one species Mycobacterium avium type II, and one species Mycobacterium terrae. Hence, the results of both the cord factor and the NAP test were confirmed with the molecular method, and at the same time, mycobacteria species identification was made by determining the fastest, easiest, and the most accurate result‐giving method. Because PCR‐RFLP is a very rapid method that provides exact identification of mycobacteria species, it can be performed in routine procedures.
Scar formation is usually the pathological consequence of skin trauma. And hypertrophic scars (HSs) frequently occur in people after being injured deeply. HSs are unusually considered as the result of tissue contraction and excessive extracellular matrix component deposition. Myofibroblasts, as the effector cells, mainly differentiated from fibroblasts, play the crucial role in the pathophysiology of HSs. A number of growth factors, inflammatory cytokines involved in the process of HS occurrence. Currently, with in‐depth exploration and clinical research of HSs, various creative and effective treatments budded. In here, we summarize the progress in the molecular mechanism of HSs, and review the available biotherapeutic methods for their pathophysiological characteristics. Additionally, we further prospected that the comprehensive therapy may be more suitable for HS treatment.
Lower limb crush injury is a major source of mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Complications, especially surgical site infections (SSIs) are a major source of financial burden to the institute and to the patient as it delays rehabilitation. As such, every possible attempt should be made to reduce any complications. We, thus, aimed to compare the outcomes in early vs delayed closure of lower extremity stumps in cases of lower limb crush injury requiring amputation, so as to achieve best possible outcome. A randomised controlled study was conducted in the Division of Trauma Surgery & Critical Care at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi from 1 September 2018 to 30 June 2019 and included patients undergoing lower limb amputation below hip joint. Patients were randomised in two groups, in one group amputation stump was closed primarily, while in the second group delayed primary closure of stump was performed. We compared rate of SSI, length of hospital stay, and number of surgeries in both the groups. Fifty‐six patients with 63 amputation stumps were recruited in the study. Mean age of patients in the study was 34 years, of which about 95% patients were males. The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic injury in 66% of patients. Mean injury severity score was 12.28 and four patients had diabetes preoperatively. Total 63 extremities were randomised with 30 cases in group I and 33 cases in group II as per computer‐generated random number. Above knee amputations was commonest (57.14%) followed by below knee amputations (33.3%). Two patients died in the current study. In group I, In‐hospital infection was detected in 7 cases (23.3%) and in group II 9 cases (27.3%) had SSI during hospital admission (P > .05). Mean hospital stay in group I was 10.32 ± 7.68 days and in group II was 11 ± 8.17 days (P > .05). Road traffic injuries and train‐associated injuries are a major cause of lower limb crush injuries, leading to limb loss. Delayed primary closure of such wounds requires extra number of surgical interventions than primary closure. There is no difference in extra number of surgical interventions required in both the groups. Thus, primary closure can be safely performed in patients undergoing lower limb amputations following trauma, provided that a good lavage and wound debridement is performed.
Tissue adhesives have gained increasing use as a possible method of wound closure. We compared the use of 2‐octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) or subcuticular suture in incisions sutures for the closure of laparoscopic cholecystectomy port incisions. A prospective randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients were randomised to have closure of laparoscopic port sites using either OCA or sutures. Patients were reviewed at 24 hours and returned for follow‐up 1 week and 1 month after postoperatively. At these times, different wound characteristics were documented: Two tools were used to measure the cosmetic result using Hollander wound evaluation scale (HWES) and the patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS). A total of 70 patients, 35 in each group were enrolled. The wounds were closed significantly faster in the OCA group (mean 229.16 [±43.7] seconds versus 258.82 [±51.7] seconds, P = .01). Statistically significant difference in favour of using OCA was found for dehiscence (17.1% versus none in the suture group, P = .025) after 1 week. However, no difference was found for wound dehiscence after 1 month. OCA and suture groups did not differ significantly on patient satisfaction. There were no differences in the percentage of wounds achieving optimal scores on the HWES (suture 85.7% versus OCA 74.2%, P = .169). Nerveless, wound evolution was judged to be significantly better in the OCA group using POSAS. Patients' median POSAS was 9.45 (6–11) and 11.43 (10–13) in the OCA and suture groups, respectively (P = .005), and surgeon's median POSAS was 9.42 (6–11) and 11.48 (10–13) in the OCA and suture groups, respectively (P = .006). N‐butyl‐cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is an acceptable technique for the closure of laparoscopic wounds with less operative time, and cosmetic results are comparable to suturing.
Wound infection involving hardware can be notoriously difficult to treat, often requiring the removal of the infected implant. The goal of this study was to determine the utility of instillation negative pressure wound therapy to help eradicate infection and allow for definitive wound closure in patients without removing the infected hardware. A retrospective review was performed on the outcomes of 28 patients who presented with open wounds with exposed or infected hardware and who were treated with a combination of surgical debridement and negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi). Eleven patients were treated for infected spinal hardware, 12 for extremity, and 5 for sternal hardware. Twenty‐five of 28 (89%) patients had successful retention or replacement of hardware, with clearance of infection and healed wounds. Original hardware was maintained in 17 of 28 (61%) patients. In 11 patients, original hardware was removed, with subsequent replacement in eight of those patients after a clean wound was achieved. Average time to definitive closure was 12.6 days. Average follow‐up was 135 days. This series supports NPWTi as an effective adjunct therapy to help expeditiously eradicate hardware infection, allowing for hardware retention.
Few studies, especially among developing countries such as Iran, have been conducted on the incidence and risk factors for medical device‐related pressure ulcers (MDRPUs). Given the importance of this issue and the lack of previous studies, the present study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for MDRPUs in Iran. The present descriptive‐analytical study was conducted at three hospitals in Qazvin, Iran, from June 1, 2019, to September 1, 2019. Data collection took approximately 3 months from July to September 2019. Sampling was carried out through a convenience sampling method, and the samples consisted of 404 patients. For data collection, a checklist for demographic variables, a checklist for patient‐connected medical devices, Braden Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale, National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Grading Scale, and Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 were used. Of the 404 patients studied, 20.54% (n = 83) developed some degree of MDRPUs. From those, 61 (70.11%) were in stage I, 17 (19.5%) were in stage II, and 9 (10.34%) were in stage III. Among the nine medical devices that caused pressure ulcers, the most commonly reported ones were nasal oxygen tubes (31 cases), oxygen face masks (23 cases), and endotracheal tubes (17 cases). The mean score of Braden Scale (P = .004), the mean score of NRS 2002 (P = .037), older age (P = .007), male gender (P = .002), the average length of stay in hospitals (P = .001), and having pressure ulcers in body (P = .025) significantly increased the possibility of occurring MDRPUs. In the present study, the incidence of MDRPUs was high. Taking the necessary measures into consideration in order to prevent the MDRPUs is essential in Iranian hospitals. Further studies in this regard are strongly recommended.
Human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells were irradiated with different energy lasers to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of microRNA‐206 and protein, and to further summarise the therapeutic effect of laser on scar cells. Human scar cell line HSF cells were cultured in three groups. The control group was not irradiated by laser, the low‐energy group was irradiated by 10 J/cm2 laser, and the high‐energy group was irradiated by 20 J/cm2 laser. After irradiation, HSF cells were cultured for 20 hours. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Transwell migration assay was used to detect cell migratory ability. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) was used to detect miR‐206 and mTOR gene levels. The levels of MMP‐9, Bax, Bcl‐2, cyclin D1, and mTOR signalling pathway proteins were detected by Western blotting assays. The results showed that after laser irradiation, the proliferation of cells decreased, and the difference between the control group and the experimental group was significant (P < .05). The higher the energy was, the greater the upregulation of apoptosis was. Apoptosis and cell migration increased (P < .05). The expressions of microRNA‐206, MMP‐9, and Bax were upregulated, while the expressions of mTOR, Bcl‐2, and cyclin D1 were downregulated. To sum up, laser irradiation can significantly inhibit the proliferation of HSF cells, affect cell cycle, and increase cell apoptosis and migratory ability.