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Rapid detection of biofilm by wound blotting following sharp debridement of chronic pressure ulcers predicts wound healing: A preliminary study


For optimal wound bed preparation, wound debridement is essential to eliminate bacterial biofilms. However, it is challenging for clinicians to determine whether the biofilm is completely removed. A newly developed biofilm detection method based on wound blotting technology may be useful. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of biofilm elimination on wound area decrease in pressure ulcers, as confirmed using the wound blotting method. In this retrospective observational study, we enrolled patients with pressure ulcers who underwent sharp debridement with pre‐ and post‐debridement wound blotting. Biofilm was detected on the nitrocellulose membrane using ruthenium red or alcian blue staining. Patients were included if the test was positive for biofilm before wound debridement. Percent decrease in wound area after 1 week was calculated as an outcome measure. We classified the wounds into a biofilm‐eliminated group and a biofilm‐remaining group based on the post‐debridement wound blotting result. Sixteen wound blotting samples from nine pressure ulcers were collected. The percent decrease in wound area was significantly higher in the biofilm‐eliminated group (median: 14.4%, interquartile range: 4.6%‐20.1%) than in the biofilm‐remaining group (median: −14.5%, interquartile range: −25.3%‐9.6%; P = .040). The presence of remaining biofilms was an independent predictor for reduced percent decrease in wound area (coefficient = −22.84, P = .040). Biofilm‐based wound care guided by wound blotting is a promising measure to help clinicians eliminate bacterial bioburden more effectively for wound area reduction.

Reliability of the skin blotting method when used on the elderly

The aim of this study was to compare protein secretion on intact skin of extremities and verify the relationship between the marker proteins on abdominal skin and systemic factors using skin blotting. A cross‐sectional study was conducted among elderly patients aged 65 years and older (N = 73) at a long‐term medical facility in Japan. Skin blotting was performed on the right and left forearms, right and left lower legs, and abdomen. Pearson's correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilised for comparing the protein secretion from the skin between the right or left forearms or lower legs. Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the relationship between intensity levels of 3 proteins on the abdominal skin and the systemic factors. Bland–Altman plots demonstrated that there was no significant difference between right and left secretion levels on the forearms and lower legs among 3 proteins. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and antiplatelet use was positively associated with decreased collagen type IV and increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels, respectively. Our findings suggested that collecting samples from either the right or the left skin would be sufficient if skin properties between arms and legs are evaluated using skin blotting.