Pressure ulcers (PUs) are one of the most prevalent adverse events in acute and chronic care. The root aetiological cause of PUs is sustained cell and tissue deformations, which triggers a synergistic tissue damage cascade that accelerates over relatively short time periods. Changes in skin microclimate conditions are known to indirectly contribute to PU‐risk levels or to exacerbation of existing wounds. It is therefore surprising that information concerning heat accumulation under dressings is poor. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of dressings on the microclimate of weight‐bearing buttocks skin in 1‐hour supine lying sessions. Using a novel and originally developed experimental‐computational approach, we compared the combined influence of the mechanical and thermal properties of a polymeric membrane dressing (PolyMem, Ferris Mfg. Corp., Fort Worth, TX) on skin microclimate under and near the dressings with those of a standard placebo foam dressing. We specifically identified the thermal conductivity properties of dressings as being highly important in the context of protective dressing performances, given its association with potential heat accumulation under dressings. Accordingly, this article highlights, for the first time in the literature, the relevance of thermal properties of a dressing in effectively mitigating the risk of developing PUs or aggravating an injury, and offers a systematic, methodological bioengineering process for assessing the thermal performances of dressings.
Dermal substitutes are of major importance in treating full thickness skin defects. They come in a variety of materials manufactured into various forms, such as films, hydrocolloids, hydrogels, sponges, membranes, and electrospun micro‐ and nanofibers. Bioactive dermal substitutes act in wound healing either by delivery of bioactive compounds or by being constructed from materials having endogenous activity. The healing success rate is highly determined by cellular and physiological processes at the host‐biomaterial interface during crucial wound healing steps. Hence, it is important to design appropriate wound treatment strategies with the ability to work actively with tissues and cells to enhance healing. Therefore, in this study, we investigated biological dermal templates and their potential to stimulate natural cell adherence, guidance, and morphology. The most pronounced effect was observed in biomaterials with the highest content of native collagen networks. Cell attachment and proliferation were significantly enhanced on native collagen scaffolds. Cell morphology was more asymmetrical on such scaffolds, resembling native in vivo structures. Importantly, considerably lower expression of myofibroblast phenotype was observed on native collagen scaffolds. Our data suggest that this treatment strategy might be beneficial for the wound environment, with the potential to promote improved tissue regeneration and reduce abnormal scar formation.
Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus is one of common diseases in general department. However, it is characterised, for surgeons, by high post‐surgical recurrence and high incidence of post‐surgical wound complications. Due to that fact, this retrospective randomised clinical study was designed to evaluate the surgical procedure effect of Z‐plasty (ZP), compared with convention simple excision (SE). A total of 67 patients from May 2015 to May 2019 in our department were studied into two groups randomly, the group of ZP and the group of SE. The patients' characteristics, surgical data, hospital length of stay (LOS), and post‐surgery complications were recorded. Statistical approaches were proceed with P‐value analysis. The results are as follows. No significant differences were found between these two groups of the ages, gender distribution, Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking history, diabetes mellitus, and blood hypertension. The estimated blood loss, specimen volume, distance to anus, and drain output on the first day of post‐surgery between the two groups were not statistically significant, either. However, surgical time in the ZP group was longer than that in the SE group (P < .0001). LOS in the ZP group was obviously shorter than that in the SE group (P = .0051). Furthermore, the patients of the ZP group were tending to suffer from fewer post‐surgical complications than the ones of the SE group. In a conclusion, we hold the point view that the surgical procedure of ZP can lead a better outcome than SE because it demonstrated shortened LOS and fewer post‐surgical complications.
The prevalence of wounds and comorbidities such as dementia increase with age. With an ageing population, the likelihood of overlap of these conditions is strong. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of wound types and current management strategies of wound care for people with dementia in long‐term care (LTC). A scoping literature review, a cross‐sectional observational and chart audit study of residents in dementia specific facilities in LTC were conducted. The scoping review indicated that people with dementia/cognitive impairment are often excluded from wound related studies and of the nine studies included in this review, none looked at the prevalence of types of wounds other then pressure injuries. In the skin audit, skin tears were noted as the most common wound type with some evidence‐based practice strategies in place for residents. However, documentation of current wound occurred in less than a third of residents with wounds. This is the first study to note the prevalence of different wound types in people with dementia and current management strategies being used across two dementia‐specific facilities and a lack of research in this area limits evidence in guiding practice.
Pressure ulcers lead to discomfort for patients and may have an important impact on a patient's quality of life. Measure the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers in a Hospice environment; evaluate the risk factors associated with pressure ulcers; and calculate the incidence of Kennedy Terminal Pressure Ulcers. This multicentre prospective cohort study enrolled 440 cancer patients in advanced phase, consecutively admitted to five hospices of the AUSL della Romagna (Italy), during a period of 1 year. Five hundred more patients were excluded from the study because of inability to sign the consent form or refusal to participate. All patients were adults above 18 years of age. The National Pressure Advisory Panel Classification System was used to evaluate the pressure ulcers. Potential risk predictors were evaluated through the Braden Scale, the Numerical Scale, and the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale. Starting in September 2016, 214 (48.6%) females and 226 (51.4%) males were analysed. The incidence of pressure ulcers in the total population was 17.3%. The risk factors that influence the development of pressure ulcers were age, proximity to death, and duration of stay in Hospice. The incidence of Kennedy Terminal Pressure Ulcers was 2.7%. This study demonstrates that 17.3% of all patients admitted to a hospice setting developed a pressure ulcer. The longer the patients stay in hospice and the clinical condition deteriorates, the higher the risk of developing a pressure ulcer.
Use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetic limb salvage (DLS) improves wound healing by providing moist wound conditions, reducing exudate, controlling wound‐bed infection, and stimulating granulation. NPWT duration may take several weeks, and home‐based NPWT allows patient to recover in the community while minimising risks of prolonged hospitalisation. The aim of this study is to review the use and outcomes of home NPWT in PAD and DLS. The methodology is the retrospective review of patients who were discharged with home NPWT after in‐patient PAD revascularisation and DLS debridement or minor amputations. The results included a total of 118 patients who received home NPWT between January 2017 and December 2017. The mean age was 62.8 years with 66% male and 34% female patients. The study population comprised 25% smokers, 98% patients with diabetics, 35% with ischemic heart disease, and 21% with end‐stage renal failure (ESRF). Of which, 56% of patients required revascularisation while 31% of patients underwent foot debridement, 48% underwent toe amputations, and 20% underwent forefoot amputations. All patients received in‐patient NPWT for a week before being discharged on home NPWT for 4 weeks. Then, 62% received targeted antibiotics regime while 36% received empirical antibiotics on discharge; 60% of patients achieved wound healing on home NPWT, with 9% requiring split‐thickness skin graft; 4% required further surgical debridement, 16% required further minor amputation while 20% required major amputation. 9% required further home NPWT extension, with a mean length of 7.1 ± 4.7 weeks' extension. Overall survival of 1 year was 89%. Risk factors that predict the failure of home NPWT includes subjects with a background of ESRF and wet gangrene on presentation. Home NPWT is a useful adjunct in the management of PAD and DLS foot wounds.
Head‐of‐bed (HOB) elevation is a common clinical practice in hospitals causing the patient's body to slide down in bed because of gravity. This migration effect likely results in tissue shearing between the sacrum and the support surface, which increases the risk for pressure injuries. StayInPlace (HillRom Inc.) is a commercial migration‐reduction technology (MRT) incorporated in intensive care bedframes. Yet, the effects of migration‐reduction on tissue shear stresses during HOB elevation are unknown. We analysed relationships between migration and resulting sacral soft tissue stresses by combining motion analysis and three‐dimensional finite element modelling of the buttocks. Migration data were collected for 10 subjects, lying supine on two bedframe types with and without MRT, and at HOB elevations of 45°/65°. Migration data were used as displacement boundary conditions for the modelling to calculate tissue stress exposures. Migration values for the conventional bed were 1.75‐ and 1.6‐times greater than those for the migration‐reduction bed, for elevations of 45° and 65°, respectively (P < .001). The modelling showed that the farther the migration, the greater the tissue stress exposures. Internal stresses were 1.8‐fold greater than respective skin stresses. Our results, based on the novel integrated experimental‐computational method, point to clear biomechanical benefits in minimising migration using MRT.
Unique properties of amniotic membrane make it a promising source for tissue engineering and a clinically useful alternative for patients suffering from chronic wounds including, for example, ulcers, burns, ocular surface damages and wounds occurring in the course of bullous diseases like stevens‐johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Its use has many advantages over standard wound care, as it contains pluripotent cells, nutrients, anti‐fibrotic and anti‐inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Placental tissues can be prepared as a medical component, an advanced therapy medicinal product or a tissue graft. In addition to basic preparation procedures such as washing, rinsing, cutting, drying and sterilisation, there are many optional steps such as perforation, crosslinking and decellularisation. Finally, transplants should be properly stored—in cryopreserved or dehydrated form. In recent years, many studies including basic science and clinical trials have proven the potential to expand the use of amniotic membrane and amnion‐derived cells to the fields of orthopaedics, dentistry, surgery, urology, vascular tissue engineering and even oncology. In this review, we discuss the role of placental tissues in skin wound healing and in the treatment of various diseases, with particular emphasis on bullous diseases. We also describe some patented procedures for placental tissue grafts preparation.
Hospital‐acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) represent a serious clinical and economic problem. The cost of treating HAPIs in Australian public hospitals was recently reported at AUS$983 million per annum. There are three main sources of data for documenting pressure injury (PI) occurrence in Australian hospitals: incident reporting, medical record coded data, and real‐time surveys of pressure injury. PI data reported at hospital level and to external agencies using these three different sources are variable. This reporting issue leads to inaccurate data interpretation and hinders improvement in accuracy of PI identification and PI prevention. This study involved a comparison of the three different data sources in selected Australian hospitals, to improve the accuracy and comparability of data. Findings from this study provide benchmark areas for improvement in PI documenting and reporting. Better understanding the agreement between the three data sets could lead to a more efficient and effective sharing of data sources.
Corticosteroid‐induced skin atrophy (CISA) consists of a thinning of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, representing the natural consequence of a prolonged glucocorticosteroids use, both systemic as well as topical. It is characterised by the loss of elasticity and skin thickness, associated with an increased skin fragility leading to ecchymoses, haematomas, and steroid purpura. The management of CISA is a challenge for physicians, as the pathology is reversible in a minimal percentage of cases and only after a short topical steroid or low‐dose course therapy. Often wounds with large loss of substance represent the more common complication, after a surgical drainage which is often necessary. Skin necrosis with compartment syndrome of a leg is another potential risk for these patients. Here, we report a case of an elderly patient affected by multiple subcutaneous haematomas of the legs causing skin necrosis, arisen after the use of anticoagulants for a deep venous thrombosis. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), and porcine xenograft with no complications. Finally, we discuss the evidence of the current literature on topic.
La pérdida de un ser querido es una de las situaciones más difíciles que deberá afrontar todo ser humano en algún momento de sus vidas. Cuando se produce el fallecimiento de un progenitor o un hermano en la etapa infantil, ocasiona una afectación mayor, debido a la pérdida de su rutina diaria y a una falta de información y entendimiento de las actuaciones que se llevan a cabo relacionadas con el luto y la despedida al ser querido. Metodología: Se lleva a cabo una revisión panorámica a través de una búsqueda sistemática de artículos originales en las principales bases de datos de ciencias de la salud: Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, Scopus, BVS, Psicodoc, Pubmed y CINAHL. Idiomas: español e inglés. Años 2008-2019. Resultados principales: Se localizan 12 artículos. Las respuestas de los niños ante el duelo más comunes son: el temor, la culpa y el absentismo escolar recurrente. Es de suma importancia el papel de los familiares más cercanos, personal sanitario y profesores en la superación del duelo, destacando como intervenciones principales: la comunicación de lo ocu-rrido al menor y la intervención grupal con niños en su misma situación. Conclusión principal: Las respuestas del niño ante la muerte de un familiar, variará según la edad. Entre las vivencias más comunes se encuentran la desprotección o la ansiedad. Además, se obtienen como resultado que el apoyo emocional por parte de los profesionales sanitarios y las familias es fundamental. La intervención más valorada es el counselling.
Introducción: La prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer son factores predictivos asociados a la morbilidad y la mortalidad neonatal y, por lo tanto, dan lugar a complicaciones como el Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria (SDR), que es la principal complicación de los recién naci-dos que ingresan en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN). Objetivo: implementar cuidados integrales de enfermería especializados e individualizados al recién nacido extremadamente prematuro basados en recomendaciones de evidencia científica e intervenciones NIC. Presentamos la valoración integral de una persona recién nacida de 23 SDG con un peso de 500 g. más SDR remitidos desde un hospital comunitario básico a un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, donde se aplica el proceso de enfermería. Métodos: Se seleccionó un paciente a conveniencia de la UCIN, aplicando la metodología del proceso de enfermería, la evaluación integral a tra-vés de los 13 dominios de la NANDA, los datos se obtuvieron del expediente clínico, la entrevista con la madre y el examen físico del recién nacido Se identifican las principales respuestas humanas para analizar datos objetivos y subjetivos, se hacen juicios clínicos para implementar planes de atención bajo recomendaciones de guías de práctica clínica e intervenciones de NIC. Resultados: Se implementa-ron cinco planes de atención con diagnóstico priorizado de enfermería, cuatro reales y uno en riesgo, se identificaron los dominios más alterados: nutrición, eliminación/intercambio, crecimiento/desarrollo y seguridad/protección. Conclusiones: se realizaron intervenciones independientes e interdependientes observando mejoría en los dominios alterados, sin embargo, el recién nacido se mantuvo en una incubadora y permaneció en la UCIN para seguir los planes terapéuticos especializados, Esto implica que la UCIN debe contar con personal multidisciplinario altamente capacitado con conocimientos actualizados en atención neonatal.
Introducción: los pacientes en el hospital están expuestos a factores clínicos, ambientales y emocionales que contribuyen a la inquietud, miedo, incertidumbre y a reducir y fragmentar el sueño/descanso. Por ello, una intervención y cuidados de enfermería adecuados por parte de los profesionales de la salud, llevando a cabo medidas específicas para atenuar el impacto del ingreso en el hospital, es funda-mental para mejorar el bienestar y la rápida recuperación de los pacientes. Objetivo: revisar cuales son las intervenciones y cuidados de enfermería más eficaces para mejorar el sueño/descanso. Material y métodos: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en las princi-pales bases de datos primarias y secundarias como Google Académico®, Pubmed®, CINAHL®, Cochrane® y CUIDEN® de los últimos 10 años, fundamentalmente para conseguir una revisión reciente de la literatura, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional en relación al tema de estudio. El presente trabajo está enfocado como una revisión narrativa descriptiva crítica para aportar datos basados en la evi-dencia. Resultados: se obtuvo un gran número de artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron los que fueron más relevantes según el obje-tivo de esta revisión narrativa crítica. Discusión y conclusiones: la literatura aporta que unas intervenciones y cuidados de enfermería específicos acordes a la actividad rutinaria en el hospital favorece el sueño/descanso de los pacientes teniendo incidencia en su recupe-ración.
by Saharat Aungsumart, Metha ApiwattanakulNeuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory condition of the central nervous system. The extent of disability depends on the severity of the disease and the number of relapses. Although azathioprine is currently the main treatment for patients with NMOSD in Thailand, patients often relapse during its use. Hence, it is argued that there are other drugs that would be more effective. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, from a societal perspective and from the economic impact on Thailand’s healthcare system, the cost utility of treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and rituximab in patients resistant to azathioprine. The Markov model with a one-year cycle length was applied to predict the health and cost outcomes in patients with NMOSD over a lifetime. The results showed that rituximab exhibited the highest quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gains among all the options. Among the rituximab-based treatments, the administration of a rituximab biosimilar with CD27+ memory B cell monitoring proved to be the most cost-effective option. At the willingness-to-pay threshold of 160,000 Thai baht (THB), or 5,289 US dollar (USD), per QALY gained, the treatment exhibited the highest probability of being cost effective (48%). A sensitivity analysis based on the adjusted price of a generic MMF determined that the treatment was cost effective, exhibiting an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -164,653 THB (-5,443 USD) and a 32% probability of being cost effective. The calculated budget impact of treating patients resistant to conventional therapy was 1–6 million THB (33,000–198,000 USD) for the first three years, while after the third year, the budget impact stabilized at 3–4 million THB (99,000–132,000 USD). These data indicate that, in Thailand, treatment of drug resistant NMOSD with a rituximab biosimilar with CD27+ memory B cell monitoring or treatment with a generic MMF would be cost effective and would result in a low budget impact. Therefore, the inclusion of both the rituximab biosimilar and a generic MMF in the National Drug List of Essential Medicine for the treatment of NMOSD may be appropriate.
by Lara Milian, Manuel Mata, Javier Alcacer, María Oliver, María Sancho-Tello, José Javier Martín de Llano, Carlos Camps, José Galbis, Julian Carretero, Carmen CardaBackground/Objective
Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop resistance to antitumor agents by mechanisms that involve the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This necessitates the development of new complementary drugs, e.g., cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) agonists including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The combined use of THC and CBD confers greater benefits, as CBD enhances the effects of THC and reduces its psychotropic activity. We assessed the relationship between the expression levels of CB1 and CB2 to the clinical features of a cohort of patients with NSCLC, and the effect of THC and CBD (individually and in combination) on proliferation, EMT and migration in vitro in A549, H460 and H1792 lung cancer cell lines.Methods
Expression levels of CB1, CB2, EGFR, CDH1, CDH2 and VIM were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. THC and CBD (10–100 μM), individually or in combination (1:1 ratio), were used for in vitro assays. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation assay. Morphological changes in the cells were visualized by phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Migration was studied by scratch recolonization induced by 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF).Results
The tumor samples were classified according to the level of expression of CB1, CB2, or both. Patients with high expression levels of CB1, CB2, and CB1/CB2 showed increased survival reaching significance for CB1 and CB1/CB2 (p = 0.035 and 0.025, respectively). Both cannabinoid agonists inhibited the proliferation and expression of EGFR in lung cancer cells, and CBD potentiated the effect of THC. THC and CBD alone or in combination restored the epithelial phenotype, as evidenced by increased expression of CDH1 and reduced expression of CDH2 and VIM, as well as by fluorescence analysis of cellular cytoskeleton. Finally, both cannabinoids reduced the in vitro migration of the three lung cancer cells lines used.Conclusions
The expression levels of CB1 and CB2 have a potential use as markers of survival in patients with NSCLC. THC and CBD inhibited the proliferation and expression of EGFR in the lung cancer cells studied. Finally, the THC/CBD combination restored the epithelial phenotype in vitro.