COVID-19 has caused a global public health crisis affecting most countries, including Ethiopia, in various ways. This study maps the vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death from COVID-19 in Ethiopia.
Thirty-eight potential indicators of vulnerability to COVID-19 infection, case severity and likelihood of death, identified based on a literature review and the availability of nationally representative data at a low geographic scale, were assembled from multiple sources for geospatial analysis. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to produce maps showing the vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death in Ethiopia at a spatial resolution of 1 kmx1 km.
This study showed that vulnerability to COVID-19 infection is likely to be high across most parts of Ethiopia, particularly in the Somali, Afar, Amhara, Oromia and Tigray regions. The number of severe cases of COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalisation and intensive care unit admission is likely to be high across Amhara, most parts of Oromia and some parts of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region. The risk of COVID-19-related death is high in the country’s border regions, where public health preparedness for responding to COVID-19 is limited.
This study revealed geographical differences in vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death from COVID-19 in Ethiopia. The study offers maps that can guide the targeted interventions necessary to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Ethiopia.
The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive evidence on risk factors for transmission, disease severity and COVID-19 related deaths in Africa.
A systematic review has been conducted to synthesise existing evidence on risk factors affecting COVID-19 outcomes across Africa.
Data were systematically searched from MEDLINE, Scopus, MedRxiv and BioRxiv.
Studies for review were included if they were published in English and reported at least one risk factor and/or one health outcome. We included all relevant literature published up until 11 August 2020.
We performed a systematic narrative synthesis to describe the available studies for each outcome. Data were extracted using a standardised Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction form.
Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria of which four were exclusively on Africa and the remaining 11 papers had a global focus with some data from Africa. Higher rates of infection in Africa are associated with high population density, urbanisation, transport connectivity, high volume of tourism and international trade, and high level of economic and political openness. Limited or poor access to healthcare are also associated with higher COVID-19 infection rates. Older people and individuals with chronic conditions such as HIV, tuberculosis and anaemia experience severe forms COVID-19 leading to hospitalisation and death. Similarly, high burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high prevalence of tobacco consumption and low levels of expenditure on health and low levels of global health security score contribute to COVID-19 related deaths.
Demographic, institutional, ecological, health system and politico-economic factors influenced the spectrum of COVID-19 infection, severity and death. We recommend multidisciplinary and integrated approaches to mitigate the identified factors and strengthen effective prevention strategies.
In a previously published Delphi exercise the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group (EPDWG) reported widely variable counteractive responses to COVID-19 during the first week of statutory public curfews in 12 European countries with case loads of 4–680 infected patients per million. To better understand these wide variations, we assessed different factors affecting countermeasure implementation rates and applied the capability, opportunity, motivation model of behaviour to describe their determinants.
We undertook this international mixed methods study of increased depth and breadth to obtain more complete data and to better understand the resulting complex evidence.
This study was conducted in 14 paediatric nephrology centres across 12 European countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The 14 participants were paediatric nephrologists and EPDWG members from 12 European centres.
52 countermeasures clustered into eight response domains (access control, patient testing, personnel testing, personal protective equipment policy, patient cohorting, personnel cohorting, suspension of routine care, remote work) were categorised by implementation status, drivers (expert opinion, hospital regulations) and resource dependency. Governmental strictness and media attitude were independently assessed for each country and correlated with relevant countermeasure implementation factors.
Implementation rates varied widely among response domains (median 49.5%, range 20%–71%) and centres (median 46%, range 31%–62%). Case loads were insufficient to explain response rate variability. Increasing case loads resulted in shifts from expert opinion-based to hospital regulation-based decisions to implement additional countermeasures despite increased resource dependency. Higher governmental strictness and positive media attitude towards countermeasure implementation were associated with higher implementation rates.
COVID-19 countermeasure implementation by paediatric tertiary care centres did not reflect case loads but rather reflected heterogeneity of local rules and of perceived resources. These data highlight the need of ongoing reassessment of current practices, facilitating rapid change in ‘institutional behavior’ in response to emerging evidence of countermeasure efficacy.
The objective of this study was to find relevant concepts of functioning in community-dwelling older adults within frequently used assessment instruments published in the scientific literature. This was part of a larger project to develop an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for use in primary care.
A scoping review was conducted. Articles dealing with functioning in older adults were searched and assessed for eligibility. The study population included community-dwelling adults (≥75 years) without dementia, living in high-resource countries. Relevant concepts were extracted from assessment instruments and linked to the ICF using standardised linking rules. Finally, a frequency analysis was conducted.
Home, primary care.
Community-dwelling adults aged 75 years and above.
From 5060 identified publications, 68 were included and 30 assessment instruments extracted. Overall, 1182 concepts were retrieved. Most were linked to the ‘activities and participation’ component. The most frequently identified categories were ‘memory functions’, ‘dressing’ and ‘changing basic body position’.
This review provides a list of relevant ICF categories from the research perspective that will be used for developing an ICF Core Set for older primary care patients.
PROSPERO (CRD42017067784), Versorgungsforschung Deutschland Datenbank (VfD_17_003833) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03384732).
Declining teenage pregnancy rates have been linked to improved access to youth-friendly contraceptive services, but information on the combined association of these services and socioeconomic factors with teenage pregnancy is lacking.
This retrospective longitudinal register-based study covers the annual teenage childbirth and induced abortion rates in the 100 largest municipalities in Finland in 2000–2018. We investigated the combined association of regional, socioeconomic (ie, education level and need for social assistance) and adolescent contraceptive service variables (ie, free-of-charge contraception, an adolescent-only clinic and availability of over-the-counter emergency contraception (OTC EC)) with teenage childbirth and induced abortion rates at the municipality level by using Poisson mixed-effects model.
Annual teenage childbirth and induced abortion rates as numbers per 1000 teenage girls aged 15–19 years old in the 100 largest municipalities in Finland from 2000 to 2018.
The following variables were significantly associated with both lower teenage childbirth and induced abortion rates when adjusted for all the other variables used in the model: providing free-of-charge contraception (rate ratio (RR) 0.82 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.92) and RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.96), respectively), availability of OTC EC without age limit (RR 0.70 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.75) and RR 0.74 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.78), respectively), and high education level of the municipality (RR 0.94 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.95) and RR 0.94 (95% CI 0.93 to 0.94), respectively).
Providing free-of-charge contraception and availability of OTC EC without age limit are associated with lower teenage pregnancy rates. These services combined with proper counselling are thus important contents of youth-friendly contraceptive services that should be provided equally for all teenagers in order to further reduce teenage pregnancy rates.
To explore the association between clinical leadership and quality of work life, as well as the mediating role of coping style in this relationship.
Three tertiary-level hospitals in Liaoning Province, China.
A total of 1209 nurses were recruited for this study. Registered nurses who work full time with at least 1 year of work experience were eligible as subjects. Exclusion criteria were nurses who work indirectly with patients, such as in education, administration or research.
Questionnaires consisting of the work-related Quality of Life Scale, the Nurse Leadership Scale and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, as well as a demographic data sheet, were used to collect participant information. Pearson’s correlation analysis, hierarchical multiple regression analysis, and asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to analyse the data.
The mean overall quality of work life score among Chinese nurses was 3.50±0.60. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, clinical leadership was positively associated with the score of quality of work life (β=0.55, p
Clinical leadership was positively associated with quality of work life and coping style partially mediated the relationship between clinical leadership and quality of work life among nurses in China. Implementing measures focusing on both clinical leadership and coping style may provide success in improving the quality of work life of nurses.
To determine feasibility, in terms of acceptability and system fidelity, of continuous vital signs monitoring in abdominal surgery patients on a general ward.
Observational cohort study.
Tertiary teaching hospital.
Postoperative abdominal surgical patients (n=30) and nurses (n=23).
Patients were continuously monitored with the SensiumVitals wearable device until discharge in addition to usual care, which is intermittent Modified Early Warning Score measurements. Heart rate, respiratory rate and axillary temperature were monitored every 2 min. Values and trends were visualised and alerts sent to the nurses.
System fidelity was measured by analysis of the monitoring data. Acceptability by patients and nurses was assessed using questionnaires.
Thirty patients were monitored for a median duration of 81 hours (IQR 47–143) per patient, resulting in 115 217 measurements per parameter. In total, 19% (n=21 311) of heart rate, 51% (n=59 184) of respiratory rate and 9% of temperature measurements showed artefacts (n=10 269). The system algorithm sent 972 alerts (median alert rate of 4.5 per patient per day), of which 90.3% (n=878) were system alerts and 9.7% (n=94) were vital sign alerts. 35% (n=33) of vital sign alerts were true positives. 93% (n=25) of patients rated the patch as comfortable, 67% (n=18) felt safer and 89% (n=24) would like to wear it next time in the hospital. Nurses were neutral about usefulness, with a median score of 3.5 (IQR 3.1–4) on a 7-point Likert scale, ease of use 3.7 (IQR 3.2–4.8) and satisfaction 3.7 (IQR 3.2–4.8), but agreed on ease of learning at 5.0 (IQR 4.0–5.8). Neutral scores were mostly related to the perceived limited fidelity of the system.
Continuous monitoring of vital signs with a wearable device was well accepted by patients. Nurses’ ratings were highly variable, resulting in on average neutral attitude towards remote monitoring. Our results suggest it is feasible to monitor vital signs continuously on general wards, although acceptability of the device among nurses needs further improvement.
Evidence about the impact of systematic nursing surveillance on risk of acute deterioration of patients with COVID-19 and the effects of care complexity factors on inpatient outcomes is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association between acute deterioration risk, care complexity factors and unfavourable outcomes in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.
A multicentre cohort study was conducted from 1 to 31 March 2020 at seven hospitals in Catalonia. All adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals and with a complete minimum data set were recruited retrospectively. Patients were classified based on the presence or absence of a composite unfavourable outcome (in-hospital mortality and adverse events). The main measures included risk of acute deterioration (as measured using the VIDA early warning system) and care complexity factors. All data were obtained blinded from electronic health records. Multivariate logistic analysis was performed to identify the VIDA score and complexity factors associated with unfavourable outcomes.
Out of a total of 1176 patients with COVID-19, 506 (43%) experienced an unfavourable outcome during hospitalisation. The frequency of unfavourable outcomes rose with increasing risk of acute deterioration as measured by the VIDA score. Risk factors independently associated with unfavourable outcomes were chronic underlying disease (OR: 1.90, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.72; p
The systematic nursing surveillance of the status and evolution of COVID-19 inpatients, including the careful monitoring of acute deterioration risk and care complexity factors, may help reduce deleterious health outcomes in COVID-19 inpatients.
The objective of this study was to describe variations in COVID-19 outcomes in relation to local risks within a well-defined but diverse single-city area.
Observational study of COVID-19 outcomes using quality-assured integrated data from a single UK hospital contextualised to its feeder population and associated factors (comorbidities, ethnicity, age, deprivation).
Single-city hospital with a feeder population of 228 632 adults in Wolverhampton.
Hospital admissions (defined as COVID-19 admissions (CA) or non-COVID-19 admissions (NCA)) and mortality (defined as COVID-19 deaths or non-COVID-19 deaths).
Of the 5558 patients admitted, 686 died (556 in hospital); 930 were CA, of which 270 were hospital COVID-19 deaths, 47 non-COVID-19 deaths and 36 deaths after discharge; of the 4628 NCA, there were 239 in-hospital deaths (2 COVID-19) and 94 deaths after discharge. Of the 223 074 adults not admitted, 407 died. Age, gender, multimorbidity and black ethnicity (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.2), p
Wolverhampton’s results, reflecting high ethnic diversity and deprivation, are similar to other studies of black ethnicity, age and comorbidity risk in COVID-19 but strikingly different in South Asians and for deprivation. Sequentially considering population and then hospital-based NCA and CA outcomes, we present a complete single health economy picture. Risk factors may differ within ethnic groups; our data may be more representative of communities with high Black, Asian and minority ethnic populations, highlighting the need for locally focused public health strategies. We emphasise the need for a more comprehensible and nuanced conveyance of risk.
To examine non-communicable diseases (NCDs) multimorbidity level and its relation to households’ socioeconomic characteristics, health service use, catastrophic health expenditures and productivity loss.
This study used panel data of the Indonesian Family Life Survey conducted in 2007 (Wave 4) and 2014 (Wave 5).
The original sampling frame was based on 13 out of 27 provinces in 1993, representing 83% of the Indonesian population.
We included respondents aged 50 years and above in 2007, excluding those who did not participate in both Waves 4 and 5. The total number of participants in this study are 3678 respondents.
We examined three main outcomes; health service use (outpatient and inpatient care), financial burden (catastrophic health expenditure) and productivity loss (labour participation, days primary activity missed, days confined in bed). We applied multilevel mixed-effects regression models to assess the associations between NCD multimorbidity and outcome variables,
Women were more likely to have NCD multimorbidity than men and the prevalence of NCD multimorbidity increased with higher socioeconomic status. NCD multimorbidity was associated with a higher number of outpatient visits (compared with those without NCD, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 4.25, 95% CI 3.33 to 5.42 for individuals with >3 NCDs) and inpatient visits (IRR 3.68, 95% CI 2.21 to 6.12 for individuals with >3 NCDs). NCD multimorbidity was also associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure (for >3 NCDs, adjusted OR (aOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.81) and lower participation in the labour force (aOR 0.23, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.33) compared with no NCD.
NCD multimorbidity is associated with substantial direct and indirect costs to individuals, households and the wider society. Our study highlights the importance of preparing health systems for addressing the burden of multimorbidity in low-income and middle-income countries.
We aim to estimate the impact of various mitigation strategies on COVID-19 transmission in a US jail beyond those offered in national guidelines.
We developed a stochastic dynamic transmission model of COVID-19.
One anonymous large urban US jail.
Several thousand staff and incarcerated individuals.
There were four intervention phases during the outbreak: the start of the outbreak, depopulation of the jail, increased proportion of people in single cells and asymptomatic testing. These interventions were implemented incrementally and in concert with one another.
The basic reproduction ratio, R0, in each phase, as estimated using the next generation method. The fraction of new cases, hospitalisations and deaths averted by these interventions (along with the standard measures of sanitisation, masking and social distancing interventions).
For the first outbreak phase, the estimated R0 was 8.44 (95% credible interval (CrI): 5.00 to 13.10), and for the subsequent phases, R0,phase 2=3.64 (95% CrI: 2.43 to 5.11), R0,phase 3=1.72 (95% CrI: 1.40 to 2.12) and R0,phase 4=0.58 (95% CrI: 0.43 to 0.75). In total, the jail’s interventions prevented approximately 83% of projected cases, hospitalisations and deaths over 83 days.
Depopulation, single celling and asymptomatic testing within jails can be effective strategies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in addition to standard public health measures. Decision makers should prioritise reductions in the jail population, single celling and testing asymptomatic populations as additional measures to manage COVID-19 within correctional settings.
Effervescent, soluble, dispersible formulations contain considerable amounts of sodium. In 2013, we previously confirmed the association between sodium-containing medications and cardiovascular risks. This study aimed to determine the changes in the prescribing pattern in clinical practice following this publication.
A longitudinal cross-sectional study.
Primary care in the UK from 2009 to 2018.
Prescribing information in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) and Prescription Cost Analysis (PCA) databases in the UK.
Prescription rates per 10 000 inhabitants were calculated using the number of prescriptions or the number of drug-using patients over the total number of inhabitants, and the prescription rates were measured at annual intervals. Prescribing trends from 2009 to 2018 were indexed with yearly data from THIN and PCA. Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) was conducted with monthly data in THIN.
From the THIN database, a total of 3 651 419 prescription records from 446 233 patients were included. The prescribing rate of sodium-containing medications changed from 848.3/10 000 inhabitants in 2009 to 571.6/10 000 inhabitants in 2018. The corresponding figures from PCA data were of 631.0/10 000 inhabitants in 2009 and 423.8/10 000 inhabitants in 2018. ITSA showed the prescribing trend reduced significantly during the postpublication period (prescribing rate: slope change=–0.26; 95% CI –0.45 to –0.07; p=0.009; proportion of patients: slope change=–0.22; 95% CI –0.35 to –0.09; p
The prescribing of sodium-containing medications in the UK primary care has declined significantly during the postpublication period. Changes in the prescribing trends for sodium-containing medications varied across regions of the UK and patient age groups.
In response to the burden of chronic disease among older adults, different chronic disease self-management tools have been created to optimise disease management. However, these seldom consider all aspects of disease management are not usually developed specifically for seniors or created for sustained use and are primarily focused on a single disease. We created an eHealth self-management application called ‘KeepWell’ that supports seniors with complex care needs in their homes. It incorporates the care for two or more chronic conditions from among the most prevalent high-burden chronic diseases.
We will evaluate the effectiveness, cost and uptake of KeepWell in a 6-month, pragmatic, hybrid effectiveness–implementation randomised controlled trial. Older adults age ≥65 years with one or more chronic conditions who are English speaking are able to consent and have access to a computer or tablet device, internet and an email address will be eligible. All consenting participants will be randomly assigned to KeepWell or control. The allocation sequence will be determined using a random number generator.
Primary outcome is perceived self-efficacy at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, health background/status, lifestyle (nutrition, physical activity, caffeine, alcohol, smoking and bladder health), social engagement and connections, eHealth literacy; all collected via a Health Risk Questionnaire embedded within KeepWell (intervention) or a survey platform (control). Implementation outcomes will include reach, effectiveness, adoption, fidelity, implementation cost and sustainability.
Ethics approval has been received from the North York General Hospital Research and Ethics Board. The study is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Ontario Ministry of Health. We will work with our team to develop a dissemination strategy which will include publications, presentations, plain language summaries and an end-of-grant meeting.
Hypertension guidelines strongly differ between societies. The current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline recommends higher proportions of the general population for antihypertensive medication than the previous American and European guidelines. How cardiovascular risk differs between persons with and without antihypertensive medication recommendation has not been examined. Additionally, the population impact of American, European and international guidelines has not been compared systematically within the same study population.
We compared the prevalence of antihypertensive medication recommendation according to the American (Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 (JNC7), ACC/AHA 2017), European (European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2013/2018), and international (WHO/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) 2003, ISH 2020) guidelines in 3092 participants of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study not taking antihypertensive medication at the baseline examination (58.1±7.5 years, 48.7% males). We furthermore compared incident cardiovascular events during the 5-year follow-up between participants with and without antihypertensive medication recommendation.
The ACC/AHA 2017 guideline recommended the highest percentage of participants for antihypertensive medication (45.8%) compared with the JNC7 (37.2%), ESH/ESC 2013 (17.8%), ESC/ESH 2018 (26.7%), WHO/ISH 2003 (20.3%) or ISH 2020 (25.0%) guidelines. Participants with antihypertensive medication recommendation according to the ACC/AHA 2017 guideline had a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events during the 5-year follow-up compared with participants without this recommendation (2.5% vs 1.1%, p=0.003).
Our results call for randomised controlled trials to investigate whether applying the stricter ACC/AHA 2017 recommendation leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease.
Standardised Training of Paediatric Resident (STPR) plays an essential role in training qualified paediatricians. Until now, China had no paediatric resident competency index system to effectively guide and evaluate the competence of paediatric residents. This study aimed to establish a competency index system for paediatric residents in China to provide a reference for improving the training system and quality of STPR.
This study conducted two rounds of Delphi expert consultation survey among paediatric medical experts (n=16), followed by screening, revising and supplementing indicators using the boundary value method. Next, the analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the weight of indicators and finally establish a competency index system for paediatric residents.
The results of the statistical analysis revealed a positive coefficient of 100% for both rounds of expert consultation. The expert authority coefficient values were 0.82 and 0.83, and the expert coordination coefficient test was p
In this study, a competency index system for paediatric residents was constructed following the characteristics and quality requirements for paediatric residents in China and is expected to significantly improve the overall level of paediatricians’ medical service quality and supply.
A cohort of 12 000 children in the Philippines who had enrolled in a 2000–2004 (current ages 16 to 20 years) Phase 3 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the prevention of radiographically confirmed pneumonia are now being asked to participate in a separate study (expected completion date September 2021) to assess the cohort’s current long-term audiometric and otologic status. This new study would allow assessments of the utility of the pneumococcal vaccine in conferring its protective effects on the long-term sequelae of otitis media (OM), if any. Lack of trained local healthcare providers in otolaryngology/audiology and testing equipment in Bohol, Philippines, necessitates the development of a distinct methodology that would lead to meaningful data analysis.
Reliable data collection and transfer are achieved by a US otolaryngologist/audiologist team training local nurses on all procedures in a didactic and hands-on process. An assortment of portable otolaryngologic and audiologic equipment suitable for field testing has been acquired, including an operating otoscope (Welch-Allyn), a video-otoscope (JedMed), a tympanometer with distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements (Path Sentiero) and a screening audiometer (HearScreen). Data will then be uploaded to a Research Electronic Data Capture database in the USA.
Tympanometric and audiologic data will be codified through separate conventional algorithms. A team of paediatric otolaryngology advanced practice providers (APPs) have been trained and validated in interpreting video otoscopy. The protocol for classification of diagnostic outcome variables based on video otoscopy and tympanometry has been developed and is being used by APPs to evaluate all otoscopy data.
The study was approved by the Research Institute of Tropical Medicine, Alabang, Manila, Philippines, and the institutional review board and the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board of the University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.
Research results will be made available to children and their caregivers with abnormal audiologic outcomes, the funders and other researchers.
ISRCTN 62323832; Post-results.
The risks associated with diabetes, obesity and hypertension for severe COVID-19 may be confounded and differ by sociodemographic background. We assessed the risks associated with cardiometabolic factors for severe COVID-19 when accounting for socioeconomic factors and in subgroups by age, sex and region of birth.
In this nationwide case–control study, 1.086 patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation (cases), and 10.860 population-based controls matched for age, sex and district of residency were included from mandatory national registries. ORs with 95% CIs for associations between severe COVID-19 and exposures with adjustment for confounders were estimated using logistic regression. The median age was 62 years (IQR 52–70), and 3003 (24.9%) were women. Type 2 diabetes (OR, 2.3 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.7)), hypertension (OR, 1.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.0)), obesity (OR, 3.1 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.0)) and chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.5 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.7)) were all associated with severe COVID-19. In the younger subgroup (below 57 years), ORs were significantly higher for all cardiometabolic risk factors. The risk associated with type 2 diabetes was higher in women (p=0.001) and in patients with a region of birth outside European Union(EU) (p=0.004).
Diabetes, obesity and hypertension were all independently associated with severe COVID-19 with stronger associations in the younger population. Type 2 diabetes implied a greater risk among women and in non-EU immigrants. These findings, originating from high-quality Swedish registries, may be important to direct preventive measures such as vaccination to susceptible patient groups.
We aim to assess the impact of temperature and relative humidity on the transmission of COVID-19 across communities after accounting for community-level factors such as demographics, socioeconomic status and human mobility status.
A retrospective cross-sectional regression analysis via the Fama-MacBeth procedure is adopted.
We use the data for COVID-19 daily symptom-onset cases for 100 Chinese cities and COVID-19 daily confirmed cases for 1005 US counties.
A total of 69 498 cases in China and 740 843 cases in the USA are used for calculating the effective reproductive numbers.
Regression analysis of the impact of temperature and relative humidity on the effective reproductive number (R value).
Statistically significant negative correlations are found between temperature/relative humidity and the effective reproductive number (R value) in both China and the USA.
Higher temperature and higher relative humidity potentially suppress the transmission of COVID-19. Specifically, an increase in temperature by 1°C is associated with a reduction in the R value of COVID-19 by 0.026 (95% CI (–0.0395 to –0.0125)) in China and by 0.020 (95% CI (–0.0311 to –0.0096)) in the USA; an increase in relative humidity by 1% is associated with a reduction in the R value by 0.0076 (95% CI (–0.0108 to –0.0045)) in China and by 0.0080 (95% CI (–0.0150 to –0.0010)) in the USA. Therefore, the potential impact of temperature/relative humidity on the effective reproductive number alone is not strong enough to stop the pandemic.
Current guidelines do not recommend direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) to treat cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) despite their benefits over standard therapy. We performed a systematic review to summarise the published experience of DOAC therapy in CVT.
MEDLINE, Embase and COCHRANE databases up to 18 November 2020.
All published articles of patients with CVT treated with DOAC were included. Studies without follow-up information were excluded.
Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data. A risk of bias analysis was performed.
Safety data included mortality, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) or other adverse events. Efficacy data included recurrent CVT, recanalisation rates and disability by modified Rankin Scales (mRS).
33 studies met inclusion criteria. One randomised controlled trial, 5 observational cohorts and 27 case series or studies reported 279 patients treated with DOAC for CVT: 41% dabigatran, 47% rivaroxaban, 10% apixaban and 2% edoxaban, in addition to 315 patients treated with standard therapy. The observational cohorts showed a similar risk of death in DOAC and standard therapy arms (RR 2.12, 95% CI 0.29 to 15.59). New ICH was reported in 2 (0.7%) DOAC-treated patients and recurrent CVT occurred in 4 (1.5%). A favourable mRS between 0 and 2 was reported in 94% of DOAC-treated patients, more likely than standard therapy in observational cohorts (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.25).
The evidence for DOAC use in CVT is limited although suggests sufficient safety and efficacy despite variability in timing and dose of treatment. This systematic review highlights that further rigorous trials are needed to validate these findings and to determine optimal treatment regimens.
Socioeconomic status (SES) affects physical and mental health and cognitive functioning. The association between SES changes (SES mobility) and health has ethical and political implications in that the pernicious effects of inequality and the differential impact on social classes of economic and social policies. There is a lack of research conducted to explore the intergenerational transmission of parental SES changes on the offspring’s mental health and cognitive functioning. We aim to fill this gap and identify roles of parental SES changes in offspring’s mental health and cognitive outcomes.
This study will be based on a longitudinal cohort from the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec. Participants and their biological offspring will be invited to this study. For those with informed consent, we will collect their information on mental health, psychiatric disorders, cognitive functioning and early life experiences for offspring. Latent class growth analysis will be used to identify parental SES mobility groups. Multivariate regression analyses will be used to explore the roles of early life stress, parental SES mobility and their interactions in psychiatric disorders and cognitive functioning. Subgroup analyses (males and females) are also planned.
This study has been given ethical approval by the Research Ethics Board of the Douglas Mental Health University Institute (IUSMD-18/17). Each participant will provide informed consent on participation. We will disseminate research findings through publication in peer-reviewed academic journals and presentations at conferences. Lay summaries of major research findings will also be shared annually with our partners in the health system and community agencies located in the catchment area.