To investigate short-term and long-term effectiveness of simulation training to acquire a structured Airway Breathing Circulation Disability Exposure (ABCDE) approach for medical emergencies; and to examine which skills were learnt and maintained best.
An observational study with a 3–4 months follow-up.
Skills center of the University Medical Center Groningen.
Thirty voluntary participants (21 females and 9 males; 27±2.77 years) of a simulation-based course.
A 2-day ABCDE-teaching course for residents and non-residents. The course encompasses 24 simulations in which participants perform primary assessments of acute ill patients. Video recordings were taken of each participant performing a primary assessment, before (T1), directly after (T2) and 3–4 months after the intervention (T3).
Physicians’ performance in the ABCDE primary assessment at T1, T2 and T3. Two observers scored the primary assessments, blinded to measurement moment, using an assessment form to evaluate the performance with regard to skills essential for a structured ABCDE approach. The Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to compare physicians’ performances on the subsequent measurement moments.
The mean ranks on the total primary assessment at T1, T2 and T3 were 1.14, 2.62 and 2.24, respectively, and were significantly different, (p
The mean ranks on the total primary assessment directly after the course (T2 vs T1 p
A course using simulation training is an effective educational tool to teach physicians the ABCDE primary assessment. Certain CRM skills decrease over time, so we recommend organising refresher courses, simulation team training or another kind of simulation training with a focus on CRM skills.
Previous studies have attempted to review the vast body of evidence on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH), but none has focused on a complete mapping and synthesis of the body of inquiry and evidence on ASRH in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Such a comprehensive scoping is needed, however, to offer direction to policy, programming and future research. We aim to undertake a scoping review of studies on ASRH in SSA to capture the landscape of extant research and findings and identify gaps for future research.
This protocol is designed using the framework for scoping reviews developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. We will include English and French language peer-reviewed publications and grey literature on ASRH (aged 10–19) in SSA published between January 2010 and June 2019. A three-step search strategy involving an initial search of three databases to refine the keywords, a full search of all databases and screening of references of previous review studies for relevant articles missing from our full search will be employed. We will search AJOL, JSTOR, HINARI, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar and the websites for the WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNESCO and Guttmacher Institute. Two reviewers will screen the titles, abstracts and full texts of publications for eligibility and inclusion—using Covidence (an online software). We will then extract relevant information from studies that meet the inclusion criteria using a tailored extraction frame and template. Extracted data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results will be presented using tables and charts and summaries of key themes arising from available research findings.
Ethical approval is not required for a scoping review as it synthesises publicly available publications. Dissemination will be through publication in a peer-review journal and presentation at relevant conferences and convening of policymakers and civil society organisations working on ASRH in SSA.
by Patricia E. Kunze, Justin R. Perrault, Yu-Mei Chang, Charles A. Manire, Samantha Clark, Nicole I. StacyBlood glucose is vital for many physiological pathways and can be quantified by clinical chemistry analyzers and in-house point-of-care (POC) devices. Pre-analytical and analytical factors can influence blood glucose measurements. This project aimed to investigate pre-analytical factors on whole blood and plasma glucose measurements in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) by evaluating the effects of storage (refrigeration) up to 48h after sampling and of packed cell volume (PCV) on whole blood glucose analysis by POC glucometer (time series n = 13); and by evaluating the effects of storage (room temperature and refrigeration) on plasma glucose concentrations using a dry slide chemistry analyzer (DCA) at various conditions: immediate processing and delayed plasma separation from erythrocytes at 24h and 48h (time series n = 14). The POC glucometer had overall strong agreement with the DCA (CCC = 0.76, r = 0.84, Cb = 0.90), but consistently overestimated glucose concentrations (mean difference: +0.4 mmol/L). The POC glucometer results decreased significantly over time, resulting in a substantial decline within the first 2h (0.41±0.47 mmol/L; 8±9%) that could potentially alter clinical decisions, thereby highlighting the need for immediate analysis using this method. The effects of PCV on glucose could not be assessed, as the statistical significance was associated with one outlier. Storage method significantly affected plasma glucose measurements using DCA, with room temperature samples resulting in rapid decreases of 3.57±0.89 mmol/L (77±9%) over the first 48h, while refrigerated samples provided consistent plasma glucose results over the same time period (decrease of 0.26±0.23 mmol/L; 6±5%). The results from this study provide new insights into optimal blood sample handling and processing for glucose analysis in sea turtles, show the suitability of the POC glucometer as a rapid diagnostic test, and confirm the reliability of plasma glucose measurements using refrigeration. These findings emphasize the need to consider pre-/analytical factors when interpreting blood glucose results from loggerhead sea turtles.
by Jesse Elliott, Zemin Bai, Shu-Ching Hsieh, Shannon E. Kelly, Li Chen, Becky Skidmore, Said Yousef, Carine Zheng, David J. Stewart, George A. WellsBackground
We sought to assess the relative effects of individual anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods
We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and grey literature (July 23, 2019) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included participants with ALK- or ROS1-positive NSCLC who received any ALK inhibitor compared with placebo, another ALK inhibitor, or the same ALK inhibitor at a different dose. The primary outcome was treatment-related death. Secondary outcomes were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and serious adverse events. Data were pooled via meta-analysis and network meta-analysis, and risk of bias was assessed. PROSPERO: CRD42017077046.Results
Thirteen RCTs reporting outcomes of interest among participants with ALK-positive NSCLC were identified. Treatment-related deaths were rare, with 10 deaths attributed to crizotinib (risk difference v. chemotherapy: 0.49, 95% credible interval [CrI] –0.16 to 1.46; odds ratio 2.58 (0.76–11.37). All ALK inhibitors improved PSF relative to chemotherapy (hazard ratio [95% CrI]: crizotinib 0.46 [0.39–0.54]; ceritinib 0.52 [0.42–0.64]; alectinib 300 BID 0.16 [0.08–0.33]; alectinib 600 BID 0.23 [0.17–0.30]; brigatinib 0.23 [0.15–0.35]), while alectinib and brigatinib improved PFS over crizotinib and ceritinib (alectinib v. crizotinib 0.34 [0.17–0.70]; alectinib v. ceritinib 0.30 [0.14–0.64]; brigatinib v. crizotinib 0.49 [0.33–0.73]; brigatinib v. ceritinib 0.43 [0.27–0.70]). OS was improved with alectinib compared with chemotherapy (HR 0.57 [95% CrI 0.39–0.83]) and crizotinib (0.68 [0.48–0.96]). Use of crizotinib (odds ratio 2.08 [95% CrI 1.56–2.79]) and alectinib (1.60 [1.00–2.58]) but not ceritinib (1.25 [0.90–1.74), increased the risk of serious adverse events compared with chemotherapy. Results were generally consistent among treatment-experienced or naïve participants.Conclusion(s)
Treatment-related deaths were infrequent among ALK-positive NSCLC. PFS may be improved by alectinib and brigatinib relative to other ALK inhibitors; however, the assessment of OS is likely confounded by treatment crossover and should be interpreted with caution.
The aim of this study was to estimate alcohol and tobacco use prevalence and their correlates among female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and drug users (DU) in Togo.
A cross-sectional bio-behavioural study was conducted among 2115 MSM, FSW and DU in 2017 using a respondent-driven sampling method, in the eight biggest towns of Togo. Selection criteria for the MSM were being male and having had oral or anal intercourse with a man in the previous 12 months; for FSW, being a female and having exchanged sex for money in the previous 12 months; and for DU, consuming heroin, cocaine or hashish for MSM, FSW and DU, respectively. All participants had to be at least 18 years old and residing in the territory for the past 3 months.
The prevalence of alcohol consumption, hazardous/harmful consumption and binge drinking was 64.8%, 38.4% and 45.5%, respectively. Current tobacco use was reported by 30.6% of participants and HIV prevalence was estimated at 12.5%. DU were more likely to engage in binge drinking compared with other key populations (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8; p=0.001). Participants who were identified as having hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption had almost three times the odds of tobacco consumption than those with no risky consumption (aOR=2.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 3.4; p=0.001). Hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption was three times more likely among participants with severe psychological distress compared with those with no psychological distress (aOR=3.3, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.1; p=0.001).
Findings from this study demonstrate the need for the integration of mental health and substance abuse reduction interventions into HIV prevention programme, particularly those geared towards key populations.
To determine whether an educational leaflet had any effect on seat belt use, seat preference and motor vehicle accidents rate during pregnancy in Japan.
Prospective, non-randomised control trial with a questionnaire survey.
Eight obstetric hospitals in Sapporo, Japan.
2216 pregnant women, of whom 1105 received the leaflet (intervention group) and 1111 did not (control group).
Distribution of an educational leaflet on seat belt use to women in the intervention group.
The effect of an educational leaflet on seat belt use, each pregnant woman’s seat preference and the women’s rates of motor vehicle accidents rate during their pregnancies. To evaluate the effects, the intervention group’s responses to the questionnaires were compared with those of the control group.
The proportion of subjects who always used seat belts during pregnancy was significantly higher in the intervention group (91.3%) than in the control group (86.7%; p=0.0005). Among all subjects, the percentage of women who preferred the driver’s seat was lower during pregnancy (27.0%) than before pregnancy (38.7%), and the percentage of women who preferred the rear seat was higher during pregnancy (28.8%) than before pregnancy (21.0%). These two rates did not differ between two groups. Seventy-one women (3.2%) reported experiencing a motor vehicle accident during pregnancy. The motor vehicle accident rate for the intervention group (3.3%) was similar to that for the control group (3.2%).
An educational seat belt leaflet was effective in raising the rate of consistent seat belt use during pregnancy, but it did not decrease the rate of motor vehicle accidents. The wearing of seat belts should be promoted more extensively among pregnant women to decrease rates of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality from motor vehicle accidents.
To determine (i) the difference in the frequency of serious adverse events (SAEs) reported in trial registrations and their respective primary publications and (ii) the effect of adding SAE data from registries to a network meta-analysis (NMA) in changing the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve values of interventions.
Secondary analysis of primary publications from two NMAs.
We included randomised trials published in English after 2005 that were included in two NMAs of pharmacological interventions for Alzheimer’s disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Two reviewers independently searched multiple international trial registries for registration status and abstracted data from the included study publications and ClinicalTrials.gov.
Of the 203 randomised trials included, 140 (69.0%) were registered with a trial registry and 72 (35.5%) posted results in the registry. The proportion of registered trials increased over time (38.5% in 2005 vs 78.6% in 2014). Of the publications with results posted in a trial registry, 14 (19.4%) had inconsistent reporting of overall SAEs; 7 (10.4%) studies did not report SAEs in the publication but did in the registry. In the 134 randomised trials with a prespecified primary outcome in the registry, 19 studies (9.4%) had a change in the primary outcome in the publication. Adding SAEs reported in registries to the NMAs did not affect the ranking of interventions.
We identified inconsistent reporting of SAEs in randomised trials that were included in two NMAs. Findings highlight the importance of including trial registries in the grey literature search and verifying safety data before incorporating it into NMAs.
Low back pain is one of the most common and burdensome chronic conditions worldwide. Lifestyle factors, such as excess weight, physical inactivity, poor diet and smoking, are linked to low back pain chronicity and disability. There are few high-quality randomised controlled trials that investigate the effects of targeting lifestyle risk factors in people with chronic low back pain.
The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a Healthy Lifestyle Program (HeLP) for low back pain targeting weight, physical activity, diet and smoking to reduce disability in patients with chronic low back pain compared with usual care. This is a randomised controlled trial, with participants stratified by body mass index, allocated 1:1 to the HeLP intervention or usual physiotherapy care. HeLP involves three main components: (1) clinical consultations with a physiotherapist and dietitian; (2) educational resources; and (3) telephone-based health coaching support for lifestyle risk factors. The primary outcome is disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire) at 26 weeks. Secondary outcomes include pain intensity, weight, quality of life and smoking status. Data will be collected at baseline, and at weeks 6, 12, 26 and 52. Patients with chronic low back pain who have at least one health risk factor (are overweight or obese, are smokers and have inadequate physical activity or fruit and vegetable consumption) will be recruited from primary or secondary care, or the community. Primary outcome data will be analysed by intention to treat using linear mixed-effects regression models. We will conduct three supplementary analyses: causal mediation analysis, complier average causal effects analysis and economic analysis.
This study was approved by the Hunter New England Research Ethics Committee (Approval No 17/02/15/4.05), and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (Ref No H-2017-0222). Outcomes of this trial and supplementary analyses will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) and the risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATDILI).
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched through April 2019.
We included case-control or cohort studies investigating an association between NAT2, CYP2E1, GST or SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and the ATDILI risk in patients with tuberculosis.
Three authors screened articles, extracted data and assessed study quality. The strength of association was evaluated for each gene using the pooled OR with a 95% CI based on the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Sensitivity analysis was performed to confirm the reliability and robustness of the results.
Fifty-four studies were included in this analysis (n=26 for CYP2E1, n=35 for NAT2, n=19 for GST, n=4 for SLCO1B1). The risk of ATDILI was significantly increased with the following genotypes: CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI c1/c1 (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.83), NAT2 slow acetylator (OR=3.30, 95% CI 2.65 to 4.11) and GSTM1 null (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.52). No significant association with ATDILI was found for the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 DraI, GSTT1, GSTM1/GSTT1, SLCO1B1 388A>G and SLCO1B1 521T>C (p>0.05).
ATDILI is more likely to occur in patients with NAT2 slow acetylator genotype, CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI c1/c1 genotype and GSTM1 null genotype. Close monitoring may be warranted for patients with these genotypes.
Smoke-free policies have been introduced in prisons internationally. However, high rates of relapse to smoking after release from prison indicate that these policies typically result in short-term smoking cessation only. These high rates of relapse, combined with a lack of investment in relapse prevention, highlight a missed opportunity to improve the health of a population who smoke tobacco at two to six times the rate of the general population. This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial, testing the effectiveness of a caseworker-delivered intervention promoting smoking cessation among former smokers released from smoke-free prisons in Victoria, Australia.
The multicomponent, brief intervention consists of behavioural counselling, provision of nicotine spray and referral to Quitline and primary care to promote use of government-subsidised smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. The intervention is embedded in routine service delivery and is administered at three time points: one prerelease and two postrelease from prison. Control group participants will receive usual care. Smoking abstinence will be assessed at 1 and 3 months postrelease, and confirmed with carbon monoxide breath testing. Linkage of participant records to survey and routinely collected administrative data will provide further information on postrelease use of health services and prescribed medication.
Ethical approval has been obtained from the Corrections Victoria Research Committee, the Victorian Department of Justice Human Research Ethics Committee, the Department of Human Services External Request Evaluation Committee and the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be submitted to major international health-focused journals. In case of success, findings will assist policymakers to implement urgently needed interventions promoting the maintenance of prison-initiated smoking abstinence after release, to reduce the health disparities experienced by this marginalised population.
The virtual multidisciplinary stroke care clinic (VMSCC) is the first nurse-led clinic developed to offer support to community-dwelling stroke survivors and caregivers, and to promote poststroke recovery. This two-arm randomised controlled trial will evaluate its effectiveness on survivors’ self-efficacy (SE), survivors’ and caregivers’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost-effectiveness on emergency admissions and length of readmission hospital stay.
A consecutive sample of 384 stroke survivor–caregiver dyads will be recruited from four hospitals. An online platform that embraces readily accessible and reliable information will be developed. Participants randomly assigned to the intervention group will receive usual care plus the VMSCC service. The service includes access to a tablet containing 30 videos demonstrating appropriate self-care strategies, communication with a registered nurse monthly through video and telephone calls and regular blood pressure monitoring. Primary outcomes include survivors’ SE in self-management and survivors’ and caregivers’ HRQoL. Secondary outcomes include survivors’ performance of self-management behaviours, depression and social participation; and caregivers’ coping strategies, satisfaction with caring and depression. Data will be collected at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after commencing the intervention. Survivors’ and caregivers’ satisfaction with the service will be assessed at 6-month follow-up. Multivariable regressions and generalised estimating equations model will be conducted. Survivors’ emergency admissions and length of hospital stay will be evaluated during the 6-month follow-up period. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed on the average total cost incurred.
The results will inform stakeholders about incorporating the VMSCC service into current stroke rehabilitation service.
This protocol was approved by the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong-New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee (CREC Ref. No.: 2017.660). All participants will provide written informed consent. Results will be disseminated through scientific publications, and presentations at local and international conferences.
The wide range of outcomes after stroke emphasises the need for comprehensive long-term follow-up. The aim was to evaluate how people with stroke and health professionals (HPs) perceive the use of the poststroke checklist (PSC), with a focus on feasibility and relevance.
An exploratory design with a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods.
Outpatient care at a university hospital and primary care centres in western Sweden.
Forty-six consecutive patients (median age, 70; range, 41–85; 13 women) and 10 health professionals (median age 46; range, 35–63; 7 women).
Most patients (87%) had one or more problems identified by the PSC. The most common problem areas were life after stroke (61%), cognition (56%), mood (41%) and activities of daily living (39%). Three organisational themes emerged from the focus group discussions. The perception of the content and relevance of the PSC was that common poststroke problems were covered but that unmet needs still could be missed. Identifying needs was facilitated when using the PSC as a tool for dialogue. The dialogue between the patient and HP as well as HPs stroke expertise was perceived as important. The PSC was seen as a systematic routine and a base for egalitarian follow-up, but participants stressed consideration given to each individual. Addressing identified needs and meeting patient expectations were described as challenging given available healthcare services.
The PSC is a feasible and relevant tool to support egalitarian follow-up and identify patients who could benefit from targeted poststroke interventions. Stroke expertise, room for dialogue and caring for identified needs emerged as important issues to consider when using the PSC. Nutrition, sexuality and fatigue were areas mentioned that might need to be addressed within the discussions. The PSC can facilitate patients in expressing their needs, enhancing their ability to participate in decision-making.
The treatment of chronic functional nausea or nausea due to functional dyspepsia in children is generally symptomatic. Moreover, these disorders pose a risk for worse psychosocial and health outcomes in children. Hypnotherapy (HT), by its ability to positively influence gastrointestinal and psychosocial functioning, may be an effective treatment for chronic nausea.
To test efficacy, this multicentre, parallel, randomised controlled, open label trial evaluates whether gut-directed HT is superior to standard medical treatment (SMT) for reducing nausea. The study will be conducted at eleven academic and non-academic hospitals across the Netherlands. A total of 100 children (8–18 years), fulfilling the Rome IV criteria for chronic idiopathic nausea or functional dyspepsia with prominent nausea, will be randomly allocated (1:1) to receive HT or SMT. Children allocated to the HT group will receive six sessions of HT during 3 months, while children allocated to the SMT group will receive six sessions of SMT+supportive therapy during the same period. The primary outcome will be the difference in the proportion of children with at least 50% reduction of nausea, compared with baseline at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include the changes in abdominal pain, dyspeptic symptoms, quality of life, anxiety, depression, school absences, parental absence of work, healthcare costs and adequate relief of symptoms, measured directly after treatment, 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. If HT proves effective for reducing nausea, it may become a new treatment strategy to treat children with chronic functional nausea or functional dyspepsia with prominent nausea.
Results of the study will be publicly disclosed to the public, without any restrictions, in peer-reviewed journal and international conferences. The study is approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committees United (MEC-U) in the Netherlands.
Many sedentary individuals are aware of the health benefits of regular physical activity and start becoming more physically active. Yet, despite good intentions, many struggle to keep up initial exercise levels and experience a decline in exercise frequency. A possible explanation is that it is hard to establish habits or routines, and that such routines—once established—might be easy to break. In this paper, we analyse whether a break in habitual/routine behaviour—induced by the Easter holidays—results in individuals exercising less after the break.
The study included a sample of 1210 members of a Danish chain of fitness centres who were gym members at least since the preceding New Year’s Day. Participants granted access to gym attendance data, which were automatically recorded when entering the gym. We use a regression discontinuity design encompassing a time period of 10 weeks prior to and 10 weeks after Easter.
We found a significant and relevant discretionary drop in exercise frequency right after the Easter holidays of 0.24 times per week (p=0.001) corresponding to a fall of 12.25% compared with the week prior to the Easter holidays. The effect was especially profound for individuals below retirement age and for individuals who had attended the gym with a higher frequency (twice a week or more) in the 6 weeks prior to the Easter break.
This information is potentially relevant for helping individuals maintain an exercise habit. Motivational support should focus on the time period after normative breaks, such as Easter or other holidays.
The literature focuses on teaching communication skills in the ‘classroom’, with less focus on how such skills are informally learnt in the healthcare workplace. We grouped healthcare work based on the cure:care continuum to explore communication approaches based on work activities. This study asks: 1) How do healthcare professionals believe they learn communication in the workplace? 2) What are the differences (if any) across the ‘type of work’ as represented by the cure:care continuum?
This qualitative study used semi-structured individual interviews.
Community care and acute hospitals in Australia (Victoria and New South Wales).
Twenty qualified healthcare professionals (medicine n=4, nursing n=3, allied health n=13) from various clinical specialties (eg, acute, rehabilitation, surgery, palliative care) participated.
Data were analysed using framework analysis, which involved the development of a thematic coding framework. Findings were mapped to participants’ descriptions of work using the cure:care continuum.
Three themes were identified that varied across the cure:care continuum: professional discourse—tying communication approaches to work activities; personal identities—the influence of personal identities on healthcare communication and role modelling—the influence of others in the socially bound context of healthcare work.
This study highlights the influence of professional, personal and social factors on the learning of healthcare communication in the workplace. Our study illuminates differences in communication practice related to work activities, as conceptualised by the cure:care continuum. The results call for further examination of the ‘nature’ of work activities and the concomitant influence on developing healthcare communication.
It is unclear whether an association exists between obesity in children/adolescents and cognitive function, and whether the latter can be altered by body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) reductions. We aimed to determine whether an association exists between BMI SDS and cognitive function in children/adolescents with obesity engaged in an obesity intervention. Second, we sought to determine if BMI SDS reduction at 12 months was associated with improved cognitive function.
Secondary analysis of a clinical trial.
Participants (n=69) were recruited from an obesity intervention. Eligible participants (recruited June 2013 to June 2015) were aged 6–16 years, with a BMI ≥98th centile or BMI >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities.
Primary outcome measure was change in BMI SDS from baseline at 12 months. Dependent variables of cognitive functioning and school achievement were assessed at baseline and 12 months, using dependent variables of cognitive functioning (elements of Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices, Wide Range Achievement Test-fourth edition and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth edition).
At baseline, BMI SDS was not associated with all aspects of cognitive function tested (n=69). Reductions in BMI SDS over time did not alter cognitive function overall. However, there was a greater reduction in comprehension standard scores in participants who increased their BMI SDS (adjusted estimated difference –6.1, 95% CI –11.6 to –0.6; p=0.03).
There were no observed associations between BMI SDS and cognitive function in participants, apart from comprehension in the exploratory analyses, which may have been a random finding. Further studies need to include larger longitudinal cohorts incorporating a wider BMI range at entry to determine whether our findings persist.
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and cause of interruptions during intravenous medication administration, which factors are associated with interruptions and to what extent interruptions influence protocol compliance.
Hospital nurses are frequently interrupted during medication administration, which contributes to the occurrence of administration errors. Errors with intravenous medication are especially worrisome, given their immediate therapeutic effects. However, knowledge about the extent and type of interruptions during intravenous medication administration is limited.
Multicentre observational study.
Data were collected during two national evaluation studies (2011 ‐ 2012 & 2015 ‐ 2016). Nurses were directly observed during intravenous medication administration. An interruption was defined as a situation where a break during the administration was needed or where a nurse was distracted but could process without a break. Interruptions were categorized according to source and cause. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between explanatory variables and interruptions or complete protocol compliance.
In total, 2,526 intravenous medication administration processes were observed. During 291 (12%) observations, nurses were interrupted 321 times. Most interruptions were externally initiated by other nurses (19%) or patients (19%). Less interruptions occurred during the evening (odds ratio: 0.23 [95% confidence interval: 0.08–0.62]). Do‐not‐disturb vests were worn by 61 (2%) nurses. No significant association was found between being interrupted and complete protocol compliance.
An interruption occurred in every eight observed intravenous medication administration, mainly caused by other nurses or patients. One needs to consider critically which strategies effectively improve safety during the high‐risk nursing‐task of intravenous medication administration.
在两项国家评估研究过程中收集数据(2011‐2012 和 2015‐2016)。给药过程中直接对护士进行观察。中断是指在给药过程中需要休息的情况,或护士分心,但不需要休息就可以处理的情况。中断根据来源和原因进行分类。进行多级逻辑回归分析以评估解释变量与中断或完全协议遵从之间的关系。