Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative skin disease that presents a therapeutic challenge. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitors have been reported to successfully control PG. Our aim was to systematically evaluate and compare the clinical effectiveness of TNFα inhibitors in adults with PG. A literature search including databases such as PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted, using search terms related to PG and TNFα inhibitors. Studies and case reports were included if patients were diagnosed with PG, over the age of 18 and administered TNFα inhibitor. A total of 3212 unique citations were identified resulting in 222 articles describing 356 patients being included in our study. The study we report found an 87% (95% CI: 83%‐90%) response rate and a 67% (95% CI: 62%‐72%) complete response rate to TNFα inhibitors. No statistically significant differences in the response rates (P = 0.6159) or complete response rates (P = 0.0773) to infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept were found. In our study TNFα inhibitors demonstrated significant effectiveness with response and complete response rates supporting the use of TNFα inhibitors to treat PG in adults. Our study suggests that there is no significant difference in effectiveness among infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept.
Central nervous system (CNS) gliomas are the most common primary intra-axial brain tumours and pose variable treatment response according to their grade, therefore, precise staging is mandatory. Histopathological analysis of surgical tumour samples is still deemed as the state-of-the-art staging technique for gliomas due to the moderate specificity of the available non-invasive imaging modalities. A recently evolved analysis of the tissue water diffusion properties, known as diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), is a dimensionless metric, which quantifies water molecules’ degree of non-Gaussian diffusion, hence reflects tissue microenvironment’s complexity by means of non-invasive diffusion-weighted MRI acquisitions. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to explore the performance of DKI in the presurgical grading of gliomas, both regarding the differentiation between high-grade and low-grade gliomas as well as the discrimination between gliomas and other intra-axial brain tumours.
We will search PubMed, Medline via Ovid, Embase and Scopus in July 2018 for research studies published between January 1990 and June 2018 with no language restrictions, which have reported on the performance of DKI in diagnosing CNS gliomas. Robust inclusion/exclusion criteria will be applied for selection of eligible articles. Two authors will separately perform quality assessment according to the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies-2 tool. Data will be extracted in a predesigned spreadsheet. A meta-analysis will be held using a random-effects model if substantial statistical heterogeneity is expected. The heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated, and sensitivity analyses will be conducted according to individual study quality.
This work will be based on published studies; hence, it does not require institutional review board approval or ethics clearance. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals.